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DD for December

2020.11.26 02:28 ViewComprehensive334 DD for December

Small DD!
About Village Farms International, Inc.

Amongst the best value marijuana stock on the Nasdaq with some really good recent annoncement n a promising future.(
Newly the sole owner of Pure sunfarm, a cannabis compagny selling in Ontario n some other provinces.
Village Farms International, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, produces, markets, and distributes greenhouse-grown tomatoes, bell peppers, and cucumbers in North America. It operates through three segments: Produce Business, Energy Business, and Cannabis and Hemp Business. The company also owns and operates a 7.0 megawatt power plant that generates and sells electricity to British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority; and produces and supplies cannabis products. It markets and distributes its products under the Village Farms brand name to retail supermarkets and fresh food distribution companies, as well as products produced under exclusive arrangements with other greenhouse producers. The company was formerly known as Village Farms Canada Inc. and changed its name to Village Farms International, Inc. in December 2009. Village Farms International, Inc. was founded in 1989 and is headquartered in Delta, Canada
Village Farms is one of the largest and longest-operating greenhouse growers in North America, and is leveraging its decades of experience in large-scale, low-cost intensive agriculture and as a vertically integrated produce supplier to pursue high-value, high-growth plant-based Consumer Packaged Goods opportunities in cannabis and CBD in North America and selected markets internationally.

In Canada, British-Columbia-based Pure Sunfarms is one of the single largest cannabis operations in the world, the lowest-cost greenhouse producer, one of the best-selling brands, and has generated profitability for seven consecutive quarters.

In the U.S., subject to compliance with all applicable U.S. federal and state laws, Village Farms is pursuing a strategy to become a leading developer and supplier of branded and white-labeled CBD products targeting “big box” and other major retailers and consumer packaged goods companies, and with one the largest greenhouse operations in country, is well positioned for the potential federal legalization of high-THC cannabis.

Internationally, Village Farms is strategically targeting selected, nascent, legal cannabis and CBD opportunities with significant long-term potential, with an initial focus on the Asia-Pacific region through its investment in Australia-based Altum International.
Village Farms International, Inc. (“Village Farms” or the “Company”) (NASDAQ: VFF) (TSX: VFF) today announced two positive developments with respect to its wholly owned Canadian cannabis subsidiary, Pure Sunfarms.

Pure Sunfarms Receives Cannabis Research License for On-Site Sensory Evaluation from Health Canada

Pure Sunfarms has received from Health Canada its Cannabis Research License to conduct human administration trials for sensory evaluation of cannabis, enabling it to engage in on-site assessments of the taste, sight, smell or touch of its products at its Delta 3 cannabis facility in Delta, British Columbia.

“This license provides us with significant new opportunities in the formulation and refinement of our products, and underscores our commitment to innovation and the advancement of the Canadian cannabis consumer experience,” said Mandesh Dosanjh, President and Chief Executive Officer, Pure Sunfarms. “We look forward to leveraging this new capability to continue to extend Pure Sunfarms’ product leadership and further strengthen what is already one of Canada’s best-selling cannabis brands.”

Pure Sunfarms Brand Debuts Internationally in Hong Kong

Pure Sunfarms will be featured as part of a limited-edition Lane Crawford x Found CBD-infused gift set to be sold in the luxury department store’s holiday pop-up shops in Hong Kong this holiday season. The luxury gift sets will feature Pure Sunfarms branded CBD gummies created specifically for the Hong Kong consumer, among other CBD-inspired items such as chocolates, bath salts, and tea bags. The co-branded Lane Crawford and Found holiday pop-up shops aim to educate consumers and elevate their awareness of CBD.

The inclusion of Pure Sunfarms-branded CBD products was facilitated through a partnership between Altum International Limited’s (“Altum”) Found, Asia-Pacific’s first CBD retail platform and cafe, and Lane Crawford, an iconic luxury department store in Greater China. In August 2020, Village Farms acquired 6.6% of Australia-based Altum, one of the Asia-Pacific’s leading cannabinoid platforms.

“We’re so pleased for the Pure Sunfarms’ brand to make its debut internationally, alongside such prestigious and progressive partners as Altum and Lane Crawford,” said Mr. Dosanjh. “This is just the beginning of what’s to come for Pure Sunfarms as we look to share our love of plants and B.C.-grown cannabis products with the global cannabis market.”

“We are particularly excited to be able to present in Asia-Pacific for the first time, Pure Sunfarms, Canada’s market-leading cannabis brand,” Fiachra Mullen, Chief Marketing Officer for Altum International. “We believe that the leading cannabis brands in the Canadian market will hold a special place in the Hong Kong consumer’s heart. We are incredibly proud to have their trust in helping them access the Asia-Pacific markets for the first time through the most progressive cannabinoid jurisdiction in the region - Hong Kong.”

About Altum International

Altum International is a cannabinoid company born from its founders’ desire to bring the life-changing benefits of cannabis back to the Asia-Pacific. Through its Hong Kong headquarters, Altum is disrupting the status quo of decades past by importing, distributing and marketing a curated range of high-quality cannabinoid products across the region in a compliant and cost-effective manner.

In early 2020, Altum launched a line of consumer-friendly CBD products (Felix & Co), as well as plug-and-play CBD inputs for business operators (LIFE CBD) in the Hong Kong market. Following this, Altum launched Found, Asia-Pacific’s first CBD retail platform and cafe - designed to educate consumers and elevate category awareness. The August 2020 completion of a strategic investment from Village Farms has further fueled Altum’s growth aspirations for 2021 and beyond.

As per the supply agreement, Pure Sunfarms, a wholly owned Canadian cannabis subsidiary of Village Farms International (NASDAQ:VFF) to supply a range of its branded, high quality, B.C.-grown cannabis products to the customers of Medical Cannabis by Shoppers Inc., a subsidiary of Shoppers Drug Mart (over 1300 locations!
Pure Sunfarms expects selected dried flower products to be available for sale on the Medical Cannabis by Shoppers ecommerce portal nationally as early as next month and selected pre-roll, bottled oil and vape products to be available in early 2021.
Pure Sunfarms' 28-gram (1-ounce) package offering will be the first large-format cannabis offering listed by Medical Cannabis by Shoppers.
(Source is the website that Reddit doesn't seems to like(copy the link n remove the space) : see
The analyst said on a revenue basis, VFF’s recent run-up has corrected the stock’s discount “somewhat” but not enough to entirely eliminate the asymmetry, where he sees VFF to be currently trading at 5.9x 2021 and 3.4x 2022 EV/Revenue, which would represent 20 and 34 per cent discount to its peer group.

With the new update, Sarugaser has reiterated his “Strong Buy 1” rating with a target price of US$20.00, which at press time represented a projected 12-month return of 113 per cent.

“Should the stock show any weakness from profit-taking [on Tuesday] (although pre-market trading implies a strong open), we would continue to see this as a very good entry point into what is, in our view, Canada’s premier cannabis operator (and U.S. dark horse),” Sarugaser wrote.

Vancouver-based Village Farms has more than nine million sq ft of greenhouse in North America and is comprised of three businesses: production and distribution of produce in the US, Canada and through partner growers in Mexico, production and distribution of cannabis products in Canada via Pure Sunfarms and production and distribution of hemp and hemp-derived CBD in the US.

Pure Sunfarms began as a joint venture with Emerald Health at a 50/50 split. Village Farms has progressively bought out Emerald Health since then, completing the move with an announcement on November 2 that it had acquired the remaining shares.

“The acquisition of the entirety of Pure Sunfarms is a defining moment for Village Farms, furthering our transformation to a vertically integrated, plant-based consumer packaged goods company,” said Village Farms CEO Michael DeGiglio in a press release. “It allows us to fully leverage the invaluable cannabis expertise Village Farms has gained in combination with the organizational strength underlying the Village Farms produce business to pursue high-growth opportunities in emerging legal cannabis and CBD markets in the United States and targeted markets internationally.”

On Monday, Village Farms announced a Health Canada research license for PSF to conduct on-site human administration trials for sensory evaluation of cannabis, which gives the company “significant new opportunities in the formulation and refinement of our products and underscores our commitment to innovation and the advancement of the Canadian cannabis consumer experience,” said Mandesh Dosanjh, President and CEO of Pure Sunfarms in a press release.

In the same release, VFF announced that PSF-branded CBD products will make their international debut in Hong Kong over the holiday season through a partnership with Altum International, an Asia-Pacific CBD retail platform and café and Chinese luxury department store Lane Crawford.

Earning call transcript
"And I will note that only a small percentage, less than 5%, of Q3 revenue was generated by the launch of our 2.0 products, which was very late in the quarter. That drove a sequential quarterly increase in net income of 200% to $3.2 million. The third takeaway from the quarter is that the value of managing our business with prudence and discipline. From day one we have built and guarded Pure Sunfarms' profitability and return on invested capital. [...] We are encouraged by this activity, as it could mean better supply demand dynamics going forward. We believe this cost quality advantage, combined with our long-term capacity, will be a significant competitive advantage for the foreseeable future. And we will continue to believe that we could supply as much as 30% to 35% of the total Canadian cannabis flower market would B.C.-grown product, in addition to being a leading brand in excess of 20% of the retail channel. I do want to remind everyone that with the acquisition of the entirety of Pure Sunfarms, our Village Farms is now free to use our 2.6 million-square-foot Delta 1 facility for cannabis, production anytime we deem that it makes sense to proceed.[...]y. Internationally, we have invested in strategic partnerships like in Asia Pacific, company Altum, which is making steady progress on the execution of its strategy, initially focused on the Hong Kong market. So, turning now to our produce business for a moment. As I noted in the onset, Village Farms has had another good quarter.

The continuing strong price performance with tomatoes drove higher sales, and our continued progress in transition and growing capacity displayed through cannabis to our partner growers, as well as our continued focus on cost management contributed to a $4.2 million EBITDA turnaround into a positive $2.2 million. While these numbers are important in and of themselves, as you have heard me say many times, what is also critical, important is the breadth and depth of the strength of the organization to the lives of produce business. It is the engine that is powering our outsize growth opportunities in cannabis and related opportunities, both domestically and internationally. I'd like to turn the call over to Steve, who'll talk through our financial results. [...]Our produce business. Produce sales of $43 million for the quarter increased over 12% versus Q3, 2019 on the back of our average selling price of tomatoes increasing 30% year on year on lower tomato volumes, as we had no production from our Delta 2 facility in 2020, as is now being converted to cannabis production, as Mike mentioned.

The increase in produce selling prices essentially rolls directly into our gross margin, as there is no impact on our cost of sales. As such, we saw a year-on-year improvement in our Q3 gross margin of $6.2 million to $5.6 million from a loss in the prior third quarter of 2019, of $600,000. Our produce business had a 13% gross margin for the quarter. The incremental increase in our gross margin was driven by the higher selling price and lower tomato volumes, again due to the diversion of the Delta 2 facility.

Produce EBITDA increased by $4.2 million year on year to $2.2 million on the back of the improvement in our produce gross margin, which was offset by a lower year-on-year add-back depreciation since the Delta 2 facility was not in production, and a higher year-on-year SG&A in Q3, 2020 versus Q3, 2019 of $1.2 million, which is primarily related to substantive expenses involved with the acquisition of the financing of the remaining Pure Sunfarms shares. I should note that these incremental SG&A expenses are not truly related to the produce business, but are more corporate in nature. Supply shortages due to the increase in grocery store traffic certainly helped to produce pricing in the late spring and throughout the summer of 2020. I'd like to extend our sincere thanks to all the Village Farms employees who have continued to work all out on growing, distributing, and supporting our Village Farms produce brands, by getting our fresh produce on the shelves, our strategic retail partners in both the U.S.

and Canada. [...] The late-quarter launch of Pure Sunfarms 2.0 products contributed 4.5% of sales this quarter, and wholesale sales made up the balance of 47% of our sales. With the retail channel totaling 53% of sales Pure Sunfarms quarter-on-quarter growth and retail sales of 30% was driven by 166% increase in its small format SKUs, and a 30% increase in pre-rolls, which were offset by a 43% decrease in Pure Sunfarms retail large-format sales. The large-format sales in this quarter were as expected ongoing replenishment sales as compared to the second quarter, which were driven by higher launch-related sales. Our quarter-on-quarter average selling price did result in a 13.3% increase, which was driven by the increase in the ratio of our small format sales versus our large format sales, which enhances our margins, as well as an increase in the blended net wholesale pricing for the third quarter versus the second quarter, the wholesale pricing were driven by spot market dynamics.

We mentioned sequential sales growth looking ahead to Q4. While we continue to experiencing continuing month-and-month, year-on-year growth in our retail and wholesale businesses, I want to remind investors that Q4, 2019 was marked by the pullback of retail buying by prevention buyers who are managing the conversion to Cannabis 2.0 and their year-over-year inventory. To date, we have not seen any indication of this reoccurring, while Pure Sunfarms and our competitors still operate in a relatively new distribution system. And there remain many external economic factors, not to mention the pandemic that could slow our strong momentum.[...]Gross margin for the quarter was 34.6% versus 33.4% in Q2, versus 68.6% in Q3 of 2019, which had a totally different demand dynamic. This quarter's cost of sales includes an inventory writedown of CAD1.4 million, $1 million for the distillate inventory purchased earlier for which the market value has dropped since our purchase. Without the write down, Pure Sunfarms adjusted gross margin was 40.7%, which is a true reflection of the actual gross margins achieved against this quarter. The remaining distillate inventory has been assessed versus the market value, and there's no need for any further distillates write down.

The distillate will be used in Cannabis 2.0 products in Q4 and early 2021. We received finally of the Pure Sunfarms extraction license from Health Canada in September, and will enhance our gross margin in Cannabis 2.0 products. The vapes in the market today were manufactured by third party extractor, as such the margin on these SKUs was lower than on our flower products in the third quarter. We expect our Cannabis 2.0 products to have a higher volume as we manufacture our own vape pens and other Cannabis 2.0 products in the coming quarters.

It was important for Pure Sunfarms to launch these vapes and oil in advance to obtain extraction license due to the ongoing success of its flower plant.[...]SG&A expenses for the quarter for Pure Sunfarms decreased approximately 13% year over year,[...]As you can see from our Q3 gross margin percentage of 40.7% without the distillate inventory writedown, as compared to our Q2 gross margin of 33.4%, we continue our strong financial performance, consistent with the virtuous circle that Mike spoke of earlier. It is simply not in our commercial interests to be telling our customers our cost of production on margins. We have demonstrated a low-cost production and brand quality.[...]The Village Farms and Pure Sunfarms balance sheets continue to be on solid ground to support our ongoing businesses in the term gross objectives. Both entities have borrowing capacity on their existing bank loans. As we decided on September 30, 2020, for the first time my tenure at Village Farms, we had a net cash position of $22 million.

Of course, we just paid CAD60 million or $40 million to complete the acquisition of Pure Sunfarms on November 2, as well as issued a CAD19.9 million note or balance of $15 million due on May 2, 2021 to complete the acquisition. So, we're back into our normal net debt position as of today, but we are on firm financial ground with our ongoing positive cash flow from operations in both produce and cannabis. Speaking of, as I mentioned earlier, our pro forma, as we mentioned our closing press release earlier this month, Pure Sunfarms have been fully consolidated in Village Farms results beginning on November 2.[...]This momentum combined with an unmatched North American assets totaling over 10.5 million square feet, more than half of which is in the United States, and which no other cannabis company in the United States or Canada has, is why we continue to be so confident in our prospects for low and high THC cannabis markets in the U.S. and internationally. We have the considerable benefit of being able to pursue these opportunities funded by our produce business, which again is performing quite well.f you remember last year,[...]-we didn't have our sales license, so basically almost into the fourth quarter of last year. So, it's been one year. So, we can't really look at how we performed last year.

[S]aid in his comments, it was a different market last year, and we were selling solely 100% wholesale from the first, second, third quarter. So, for us, getting some historical data going forward is what we need. The second quarter of this year and to an extent the third was really impacted by COVID, especially the second quarter [...]Well, there is progress. I mean, we're still, you know, eyeballing Quebec. The team's doing a lot there. It's not an easy penetration, but we feel confident that slowly we'll make an entree into that, and that's clearly at the top of the pinnacle right now is Quebec.

But, you know, I think what's more interesting for us is finally the traction that Ontario and British Columbia showing in opening stores. I mean, Ontario's talking about, you know, in the realm of 40-50, 30 to 50, 30 to 60, stores promoting on the month, looking at 500 stores by April, doubling that to a thousand by next September, that is very, very exciting for us. We've had conversations on greater capacity. And I think British Columbia is moving in that -- not as aggressively.
maybe if you can just sort of elaborate more generally, given the -- you know, the recent changes in the U.S. at the federal level. How you see things playing out? And how those farms would be able to compete generally, relative to the MSOs which, you know, are quite in favor at the moment?

We believe that interstate commerce will happen.

And I think that's one area that that's where we shine the best. You just can't have five, seven, eight production facilities in a given state, indoor five, six, seven growers or one grower going around if you're going to really try to have incredible strains and consistency. So, one example with MSOs is, as successful as they are, and they will be more successful, especially the national ones, big-market cap see pockets no doubt, but they're going to have to find how they can be cost effective. Because in the end, like we've proven in Canada, things will get competitive.

And even if, in the end, there is a migration with technology, less in flower to other deliverables, I think we could play our part. From a Texas perspective, if Texas -- yeah, there's a lot of bills out there. We don't know, unfortunately, Texas meets every two years. So, we have this one window between January and May, whether it's a medicinal play there, I think first rather than RAC or nothing happens, and it's two years out.

Once we launch in Texas, we will be sort of first in when assets ready to go. We already have our conversion plans. We're ready to go in Texas. And that's the size same population nearly as Canada and the way Texas is going to probably be very close the next few years.

So that in itself is like the Republic of Texas or a country, but that doesn't mean we won't work nationally. And we're prepared to look at, if we have to do acquisitions or strategic partnerships and other locations where we can bring our strengths to the table. I think there's a lot of opportunity there. We're pretty well-known.

As you know, Village Farms is, in principle, a U.S. company. That's where we are. So, it's like coming home, and we're excited about on the array of possibilities for us." (
Institutional Ownership18.53%
Income statement + blance sheet
Price target Low 10.00, median 13.15, High 26.59 (from Barron n MarketWatch)

Disclaimer I've entered in it with an average buying price of 6.19US n I will be buying more.
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2020.11.16 17:50 AwesomeMathUse Canadian Existing Home Sales (Oct. 2020) — The Exodus Continues

Robert Kavcic, Director and Senior Economist
November 16th, 2020

A few more observations:

Table 1 - Canada - Existing Home Sales - % change
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2020.10.28 16:04 UpgradeTech After 10 years, here’s my (mostly complete) Fallout New Vegas music CD and record collection containing the songs from the game’s radio soundtrack from 1942 to 2009.

Hello all. With the 10-year anniversary of Fallout: New Vegas, I wanted to share with you a project I have been working on for the past couple of years. I have been trying to collect the music of the Fallout series on the original records as a way to bring the games to life.
I've been working on other similar video game record collections, however, the Fallout series has proven to be a combination of both fascinating and frustrating in tracking down the original versions of the songs used in the game which run the gamut from shellac 78s, vinyl LPs and 45s to enormous 16 inch transcription discs, radio broadcasts, re-recordings, Snader Telescriptions, 8 tracks, and stock music. New Vegas runs the gamut from 1942-2009 and every decade and music format in between.
For those of you impatient with this wall of text to see another wall of text, but with far more pictures mostly alphabetized by artist, here's the link where I try to document every single record used in Fallout: New Vegas' various main radio stations, Radio New Vegas, Black Mountain Radio, and Mojave Music Radio.
Important: Imgur may or many not prompt you to click on "Expand More Images"; the image album goes far beyond 10 pictures.
And of course we can't forget Mr. New Vegas aka Wayne Newton and perhaps his most famous single "Danke Schoen". Though some might say his voice is very different; many people confuse it with a woman's voice.

Breakdown by decade.

This is a continuation of my previous post on the 10 year anniversary of Fallout 3.
Compared the Fallout 3, finding the records for New Vegas was more difficult since many weren’t available as jukebox singles, only came on albums, were the wrong versions, or just more rare overall.
4 songs were re-recordings/obscure versions and very uncommon to find outside the game since radios do not use the more famous originals: “Heartaches by the Number”, “It’s a Sin to Tell a Lie”, “Why Don’t You Do Right”, “Hangover Heart”. (Also an easy way to check if a Spotify or YouTube playlist compilation of the New Vegas soundtrack accurately uses the in-game versions) See also: “Jingle Jangle Jingle”.
New Vegas' soundtrack also tends to move forward in time with more records being first issued on the newly invented vinyl record instead of shellac 78s. More of them largely exist only on albums and weren't issued as singles.
Of course with albums comes cover art. While Fallout 3 had one song associated with a nudist film, a couple of pieces of album art for New Vegas feature a number of provocative poses even if it has nothing to do with the song itself, be warned that it is Sin City indeed.
Of course, people know the story of why Elvis was way too expensive to put in New Vegas. As for Rat Pack songs, there's one each for Sinatra and Dean Martin from their Capitol recording days. Sammy Davis Jr. would be a Decca records guy at the time (the label is much rarer to find in New Vegas compared to Fallout 3), but he is represented in the game as Tommy Torini.


  • "Jingle Jangle Jingle" was recorded for Columbia Records in 1942, the same year as "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition". However, Fallout 76 actually uses the 1962 version of the song made after Kay Kyser retired, made with former members of his orchestra for Capitol Records. Weirdly, there are a couple of videos on youtube with the New Vegas logo for "Jingle Jangle Jingle" with millions of views that are using the wrong version of the song. It's not the in-game Columbia Records version, but taken from the same 1962 Capitol Records album that Fallout 76 uses. Though it hasn't been picked up by youtube's copyright ContentID program compared to the in-game version.
  • "Stars of the Midnight Range" is another one of those darn 16 inch transcription discs. Imagine taking a record and enlarging it to the size of your car hubcap. Like Fallout 3's Bob Crosby songs, you need a turntable that can actually accommodate the increased size. Standard turntables will cause the record to overlap the tonearm itself. According to his autobiography, Johnny Bond recorded it in 1944. The same Soundies Inc. CD album reissue also provided "Headin' Down the Wrong Highway" used in Fallout 76 which is the only other "new" Soundies transcription song used after the dissolution of the archiving company after the death of the archivist.
  • "It's a Sin" is the only RCA Victor song in New Vegas, similar to "Anything Goes" from Fallout 3. Eddy Arnold recorded it in 1946. It would take until Fallout 4 to more RCA Victor song to appear in Fallout. Probably unsurprisingly, there are quite a few songs that talk about sin in New Vegas.
  • "Mad About the Boy" is another 16 inch transcription disc song. Helen Forrest recorded this Noel Coward standard in the 1949-1950 period with the rather impressively-named Carmen Dragon and his orchestra. Fallout being Fallout means that this transcription disc uses vertical grooves (up and down) instead of the more common lateral grooves (side to side). If you look very closely at the huge record sleeve, there are enormous letters that say "VERTICAL". In the days before stereo sound, the idea was that since transcription disc turntables used rubber idler wheels that horizontally rub to rotate the platter, this imparts noise in the playback since the needle also moves horizontally. Therefore the grooves should undulate up and down to avoid excess noise to get good mono playback. When stereo sound was perfected a decade or so later, grooves would move the needle up-down and left-right to get two discrete stereo channels. As such, since my cartridge is meant for lateral discs, I can't actually play this disc until I find a stereo cartridge for the tonearm, Fallout being Fallout.


  • "Orange Colored Sky" doesn't actually appear in-game, though it was prominently used in a 2010 TV trailer for New Vegas. It sort of languished in obscurity with the other Fallout trailer song "Dear Hearts and Gentle People" until they finally made it into a Fallout game with 2015's Fallout 4. It was recorded by Nat King Cole in 1950 for Capitol Records. New Vegas would actually be the first in the series to start to use Capitol Records songs.
This is also the last shellac 78 used for New Vegas before the soundtrack transitions into the newer vinyl era.
By the way there is an interesting Nat King Cole song that encapsulates the Fallout soundtrack called "Mr. Cole Won't Rock and Roll". It doesn't appear on the original 1966 release of the album Live at the Sands released after his death in 1965, but it does on the CD reissue.


  • "Ain't That a Kick in the Head" is also pretty iconic and was featured in the film Ocean's 11 in 1960. Unusually for a Dean Martin Capitol Records 45, this is rather hard to find. It apparently failed to chart despite being in the movie. Probably because it didn't do too well, the budget compilation album company Pickwick reissued the song a lot on so-called "Greatest Hits" albums. The 1957 Pickwick album You Can't Love 'Em All is probably the earliest reissue and one of the most common. Though the end credits still credit Capitol Records for the song so they likely still retain the rights.
  • "Blue Moon" is the only other Rat Pack song in New Vegas, this time by Frank Sinatra himself. It was taken from the 1961 Capitol Records album Sinatra's Swingin' Session!!! and doesn't appear to have been issued as a single though there are some obscure EP versions that cut down the album. This was his third to last studio album for Capitol Records, though it is a partial re-make of an album he had made previously for Columbia Records ten years ago when he was still a bobby-soxer heartthrob. By 1960, Sinatra would be rather preoccupied with launching his own record label, Reprise. Of course it didn't stop Capitol from releasing a number of compilation albums after his departure from the label.
  • "Happy Times" is another Bert Weedon guitar instrumental. It was originally titled "China Doll" and released in on HMV (His Master's Voice) records in 1961. People of a certain age from the UK may recall when 45s came with knock-out centres lest they suffer from the record dinker tool to force them to fit in a jukebox.


Meanwhile, director Ridley Scott was riding on a wave of fame after the release of Alien in 1979. To keep up his directing chops, he made a series of commercials for Chanel No. 5, the perfume. The first was the radically different Blue Sky commercial with a woman lounging by a pool with the tagline “Share the Fantasy”.
The second came out in 1982, known officially as “L'invitation au rêve - Le jardin”.
There are several different versions with dialog, but they all feature the same images of the mysterious woman and man and personal questions.
The curious thing about the commercial is that it uses the re-recording of “I Don’t Want to Set the World on Fire” from this very same album. The commercial garnered a feature in the December 14, 1982 issue of the New York Times, but it does not mention the discrepancy in the recordings. The recording proved so popular in France that it led to a reissue of the album in 1983 with a new cover evoking scenes from the commercial spot and sprinkling of piano present in the commercial, but not in the original 1979 album.
Later the same year in 1982, Ridley Scott would complete Blade Runner which featured similar imagery from the commercial and another Ink Spots song in the original trailer "If I Didn't Care". This was cut from the theatrical release and replaced with the soundalike "One More Kiss, Dear". The original Ink Spots tune is restored depending on which version of the movie you have.
For "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie", it's arguably one of Billy Kenny's last recordings before he died in 1978.
Again, you have to be careful with buying the Ink Spots on vinyl LPs. After the Ink Spots broke up, many impostor groups rand around recording under the Ink Spots name even if they didn't have any original members. At best for Ink Spots LPs you can have mono or fake stereo, but original recordings, the worst will have entirely new re-recordings with no original members. Most of the Ink Spots repertoire was originally recorded on mono shellac 78s and a couple of the songs used in Fallout never made the jump to vinyl. If you want to find vinyl compilation albums with the original versions you know and love from the games, try to find labels and the subsidiaries which hold the original rights like Decca, MCA, and Brunswick to reduce the chance of them being re-recordings.
Of course for "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie", it is taken from an album of re-recordings though with Bill Kenny as the original member. I've been able to confirm the following issues as having the New Vegas version of the song though it could be there are others especially on compilations with other artists. While all of the other Ink Spots songs used in Fallout are licensed from Decca/Geffen Records, the New Vegas end credits for this song mention a Dominion Entertainment which appears to be a K-Tel subsidiary which also provided the other oddball New Vegas song "Heartaches by the Number". I'm not sure how Spotify would categorize this.
  1. The Ink Spots originally recorded "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie" for Decca Records in 1941, but New Vegas does not use this version of the song.
  2. Bill Kenny did record "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie" for Mercury Records in 1962 for the album Bill Kenny Sings the Golden Hits of the Ink Spots, but this is a different version.
  3. If I Didn't Care (1979) is the first known issue of the New Vegas version of the song. It had a couple of issues in 1979 under the Columbia subsidiaries of CBS/51 West Records. Unfortunately, it's a rather vague title featuring the Ink Spots' best-selling song, muddling searches quite a bit. It features a fountain pen, an ink bottle and a rose on the cover. Depending on which format you find the album, it may or may not actually mention if it's re-recordings. The LP says it's full of "previously released material", but I have not managed to find an earlier issue of these recordings. The cover and the label mention a certain "Springboard International" and "Koala Record Company".
Here is the 8-track issue of the song in the most 70s way I can think of, with a space age Weltron and a lava lamp. Around the middle you get the dreaded fade-out and fade-in that people of a certain age may remember about the quirks of the 8-track format.
  1. Ink Spots Greatest Hits (1982) again has a rather vague title, but it was made by Era Records. I don't know why the cover art features a woman in a suggestive pose covered in stars if none of the titles reference this. I guess it was the 80s. The cover does mention that it's re-recordings by "Key Seven Music" and "Dominion Music Corporation".
  2. The World on Fire (I Don't Want to Set...) (1983) Again, the title is rather vague, but this is an unusual French issue under Carrere/Media Plus. The cover art features imagery from the Chanel No. 5 perfume commercial as mentioned above with the man and the tower looking on a man and a woman enjoying a chance meeting. The text boxes reference this with "Musique originale du spot TV" (Original music from the TV commercial) and "Nouveaux enregistrements" (New recordings). There also was a lead single 45 with the same cover art, but it only has the version of "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire" from the commercial and "We Three (My Echo My Shadow and Me)". The cover mentions "Kilo Music Limited" and "Key Seven Music".
My copy actually appears to be signed by Harold Winley, Jim Nabbie, Sony Hatchett, and King Drake aka the Jim Nabbie's Ink Spots. There's an interesting article from the August 1, 1985 issue of South Florida Sun Sentinel about the Jim Nabbie's Ink Spots suing other Ink Spots groups for using the Ink Spots name. Whatever the case, they were not present at the original 1941 recording sessions for "I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire" and "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie", nor does it appear that Bill Kenny sang with the group at the 1978 recording session. Apparently they were based around the Florida area and I'd love to know the circumstances that led them to signing an Ink Spots record pressed in France.
One more note on this song: I haven't been able to find much about the recording of the album. There is some information about the album having being made in Nashville in some newspaper articles for the Vancouver Sun in 1982-1983 by Denny Boyd. It was brought forth by Bill Kenny's widow Audrey McBurney who apparently tried to sue the Chanel No. 5 perfume corporation for unauthorized use of the song from the album. Other newspaper articles from 1985-1992 either misidentify or correctly identify the version of the song used in the commercial.
Presumably there would be more information about the album in the court case if it still exists. I've tried to visit a couple of legal libraries over the years, but Canadian court cases and appeals are hard to get this side of the border and since it took place around 1982, it is before the 1985 digitization limit. The case was possibly dropped and settled out of court, but if there are any Canadian Fallout fans who have access to the legal archives in Vancouver, I'd greatly appreciate any help in this matter on Bill Kenny's last album.


The New Vegas version was recorded in 1980 for K-Tel Records in Nashville. The end credits of New Vegas for the song do not mention Columbia Records, the original label, like they do for "Big Iron" and "Jingle Jangle Jingle". Instead it's "Dominion Entertainment" again like for "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie". Dominion Entertainment also appears appears to be a K-Tel subsidiary I'm not sure how Spotify would categorize this.
Candlelite Records provided the earliest issue of the New Vegas version that I could find. There appears to have been an acquisition/lawsuit/bankruptcy between Candlelite and K-Tel in 1980 and 1984. However, they were multiple Candlelite compilations issued in 1983 which have the New Vegas version.
  1. The Top 100 Country Hits of All Time (1983) This is a long 5 LP set (or 3 8-track) Candlelite set. The minuscule asterisks mention this version of the song is a re-recording by the original artist provided by "Imperial Music".
  2. The 1950's Rock and Roll Music Collection - Looking Back (1983) This is part of a colorful Candlelite series, this one is yellow and features a woman precariously rocking back at a bowling alley. It's a 3 LP set with a large booklet featuring random 1950s trivia. The album mentions a random mix of original and re-recordings by the original artist, some provided by "Imperial Music".
  3. Country Music Cavalcade - Nashville Graffiti (1983) 3 LPs. This is a confusing issue for Candlelite Records. First, there is a nearly identical 1976 version of Nashville Graffiti which uses the CBS/Columbia Records version aka the original recording not used in New Vegas. Cavalcade is also a series with nearly identical covers which have different bylines like "Welcome to Candlelite Country" while emphasis should be placed on the Nashville Graffiti byline for the New Vegas version. The cover is a scribbly one-line type drawing with a man and woman singing next to a jukebox and a car near a diner. It mentions re-recordings from "Key Seven Music".
  4. Heat of the 50s (1987) This is a cassette released by Master Sound a subsidiary of the Mastertronic video game company from the UK. There's a long story about this release, but the intriguing thing is that it also has the version of "It's a Sin to Tell a Lie" from New Vegas as well which is extremely unusual. The cover features black and white clipart of a man dancing? The tape does mention re-recordings from "Kilo Music Limited".
  5. Those Fabulous 50s (1988) Another UK release from Ocean Records. The lamination is unfortunately peeling off from the cover which features a large closeup of a car. The label does mention re-recordings from "Kilo Music Limited".
  6. Hooked on Country (1990) Another UK release, this time a true-blue K-Tel record instead of one of its subsidiaries. It's a gatefold for a single LP with 50 non-stop country classics. Because it's non-stop, it's mostly one giant groove with no track separations, so cuing is a little difficult. The track credits are a bit of a mess with some tracks being re-recorded and some not. "Heartaches" is credited to a "S J Productions Inc." You can actually hear the New Vegas version of "Heartaches on this very old K-Tel TV commercial for the album.
There are likely other issues, but these are the ones I found so far with the New Vegas version. I also have a large number of "duds" from various countries which do not have the version featured in Fallout.
This is the last track used in New Vegas that was originally issued on vinyl before the soundtrack moves forward into the newer CD era.


Much of this information comes from the physical CDs themselves and their liner notes booklets. Surprisingly, the original CDs were among the hardest things to track down for New Vegas. Some people assume these songs were composed specifically for New Vegas mostly because they don't seem to exist outside of New Vegas. But these were songs composed by many talented musicians who are still working today. I will try to list instances where the song also appeared in media earlier than New Vegas.
You may recognize the other Dick Walter tracks on the Pure Big Band KPM CD set. "Hey, Hot Lips!" was used on the UK version of Whose Line is It Anyway? for the Narrate scenes back in the 1990s. The US version uses a slightly less sleazy version for its narrate scenes. "Hot Liquorice" was also used in 1998 X-Files "Triangle" episode and the Boggart scene coming from the gramophone Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.


Here we are firmly in the CD era and some of Fallout's most modern songs. Some of these CDs would be issued on cardboard digipaks instead of plastic jewel cases.


Like all Fallout games, trying to track down the original releases and information about the songs in New Vegas was simultaneously interesting, rewarding, surprising, and very frustrating since so little information seems to exist about many of the songs outside of the game and the wide range of formats from shellac to vinyl to transcription discs to reel to reel tape to 8-tracks to cassettes to CDs. And yet after 10 years on the anniversary, it is still incomplete and I'm still looking.
Continued below...
submitted by UpgradeTech to Fallout [link] [comments]

2020.10.27 16:54 jessie_berry The case of Blair Adams is one of the most bizarre and fascinating unsolved mysteries I've ever come across. The Canadian fled from British Columbia and ended up dead in Tennessee days later. What happened to him?

Blair Adams (aka Robert Dennis Blair Adams) was 31 years old when he was found dead in a construction site in Tennessee, United States--thousands of miles away from his home in British Columbia, Canada. Blair was a construction foreman who was known to be friendly and generous; his mother described him as “kind” and “ambitious”. He met his untimely demise through a series of extremely bizarre and strange events that remain unexplained to this day.
This is one of the fascinating cases I’ve come across. It’s been posted here before but the circumstances surrounding his death are so mind boggling that I believe the case still warrants discussion.
Weeks Prior: He began acting very strange in the weeks before his disappearance and ultimately death. He was described to have acted out of character: paranoid, erratic and anxious. He told his friends and mother that someone was spreading rumours about him and that someone was going to kill him. He would not explain who nor why. Other odd behaviour he exhibited include the fact that he stopped attending his AA meetings (he was 2 years sober at that point), left his worksite unlocked and quit his job without picking up his last pay cheque.
05JUL1996: He started preparations for his departure by withdrawing most of his money from his bank account and valuables from his safe deposit box including gold bars, platinum and jewelry. He would keep these in a fanny pack.
7JUL1996: His first attempt into the US was via a ferry from Victoria, British Columbia to Seattle, Washington. US immigration officials flagged him because he fit the profile of a drug courier: lone male traveling with a lot of cash. Red flag number one. Red flag number two was raised when he denied any criminal history. However, his background check showed that he had been convicted of drug and assault charges in the past. Thus, he was denied entry.
9JUL1996: Early morning he tried to cross into the US by foot through the Pacific Highway Border Crossing. He was denied by border patrol once again because he matched the description of a man involved in a car theft and the blue car was found nearby the border crossing. However, Blair denied these allegations and the officials let him go since there was enough evidence against him. They noticed that he had scratches on his hands and feet. Interestingly, his friend would later tell the investigators that she saw Blair driving a blue car that day, not his regular Chevette. He finally makes it across on his 3rd attempt to Seattle via a rental Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport. He drove the Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Strangely, he purchased a roundtrip ticket to Frankfurt, Germany. Why Frankfurt? Well in late 1995 he worked on a construction project near the city and he dated a girl there during this time. However, his German girlfriend told the police later that he never informed her that he was coming. Blair never got on that flight. Instead, he cashed in his credit for a one way ticket ($800) to Washington, DC. Quite a few sources point out the price because it was double the cost of a roundtrip ticket but I think it could’ve been just the earliest flight out to Washington.
10JUL1996: He arrived at Dulles International Airport in the morning ~6:45am and rented a Toyota Camry. Then he started the 7 hour drive to Knoxville, Tennessee. The first sighting of him in Knoxville was at a gas station ~5:30pm. He had trouble getting into his car with the key and called for a repair service. When the clerk arrived, he realized that Blair had been trying to open the Toyota Camry with his Nissan Altima key (remember the other rental?). However, when he tried to advise him to check his pockets for the right key, Blair was determined that he had the correct key. Ultimately, the clerk dropped Blair off at Fairfield Inn and called a tow truck for the Camry.
LAST SIGHTING: Blair checked in at the inn around 7pm and continued to display strange behaviour. From surveillance footage, he entered and exited the lobby 5 times in 40 min. The hotel staff also described him to be paranoid and anxious, seemingly waiting for someone to attack at any moment.
11JUL1996: He was found dead in the morning at 7:30am by two construction workers at the construction site of a hotel across from Fairfield Inn. There was $4000 in cash scattered around his body in US, Canadian and German currencies. His socks, shoes and along with his pants were taken off. Knox County Sheriff described it “like somebody else pulled them down for him”. There was also a black duffel bag near his body with maps and receipts. The Toyota Camry key he couldn’t find at the gas station? Yes, it was also by the body. Autopsy showed that the cause of death was sepsis due to a blow that ruptured his stomach--likely from a crowbar or club. Toxicology showed that there was no alcohol or drugs in his system.
There wasn’t much evidence for the investigators:
  1. No murder weapon: He sustained several injuries and defensive wounds. It looked like he was beaten by the assailant(s).
  2. Lack of DNA evidence: Certain injuries indicate that he had been sexually assaulted, however no DNA evidence could confirm this. Furthermore, they also could not say when the assault had taken place and thus could have been unrelated to his death if it did happen. The only DNA evidence they found was a single long strand of hair. I couldn’t find any reports confirming whether it was from a male or female (not sure why)
  3. No witnesses: Security guard nearby heard a scream at 3:30am.
Sexual encounter gone wrong: This was the prevailing theory from investigators because of the way the body was found (naked from waist down), evidence of sexual assault and there was a truck stop nearby and the area was a hub filled with prostitution. So Blair solicits a prostitute, the deal goes bad and they (the sex worker and/or their pimp) try to scam him. A fight ensues and they accidentally kill him. I don’t really buy this theory since there was a lot of cash around the body. If it was just about the money, then why didn’t they take any? Even if they were scared that they had killed him, it’s hard for me to believe that they wouldn’t take any of the cash. I also read that some people believe that they didn’t take the cash because it was in different currencies: either they didn't want it to be traced back to them somehow while exchanging or just didn’t want to exchange it. However, I would argue this took place some time during the night. Unless the construction site is really well lit, then how could they tell it was a different currency? Even if the money looked foreign, wouldn’t they just scoop it up, run and then sort through it later? Also, they didn’t take any of the fanny pack’s valuables.
Sudden onset of mental illness: He was mentally ill and had a psychotic break. His psychosis drove him to create this elaborate escape plan and ultimately he either took his own life or a chance encounter took his life. Supporting evidence of this include his bizarre paranoid behaviour weeks prior to his death, history of mental illness in his family, history of alcohol abuse and age (31). However, he was never diagnosed with mental illness himself. On top of that, his friends all denied that they had seen him display any signs as well. Since there was no concrete evidence, it’s hard for me to believe this theory. To play the devil’s advocate, if he was truly stable and went to many of his friends and family to let them know someone was going aftekill him...why didn’t any of them report this to the authorities? Or even get him medical help? Very strange.
To be honest, he could very well have had mental illness. However, the reality of the threat and possible mental illness are not mutually exclusive. He may have been schizophrenic and his life was in real danger. Or even the threat of his safety may have triggered the psychosis.
Organized crime hit: He was involved in illegal activities (most likely drug related given his past), got in way over his head, pissed off the wrong people and they murdered him for it. This is the theory that I’m leaning towards. This is also related to his time in Germany. Unlike his girlfriend who described him as a “gentleman”, he was seen as “abrasive”, “confrontational” and got in fights with his German ex-workers. He also relayed that he actually feared violence from them! On top of this, a poster from sitcomonline claimed that his ex-girlfriend and friend revealed his trip to Germany ended earlier than expected and that he was different after he came back. But why would they stalk him all the way to Tennessee? Maybe it was just to mentally torture Blair and see him break (which he did) before finally killing him. Finally, his pants being pulled down could be a way to humiliate him.
I could go on for hours on this case but this post is so long already so I'll stop here. What do you guys think happened to him?
Links if you're interested:
  1. My video:
submitted by jessie_berry to TrueCrime [link] [comments]

2020.10.27 02:01 jessie_berry What happened to Blair Adams? A series of incredibly bizarre events led this Canadian to flee from British Columbia and end up dead in a construction site in Tennessee

Blair Adams (aka Robert Dennis Blair Adams) was 31 years old when he was found dead in a construction site in Tennessee, United States--thousands of miles away from his home in British Columbia, Canada. Blair was a construction foreman who was known to be friendly and generous; his mother described him as “kind” and “ambitious”. He met his untimely demise through a series of extremely bizarre and strange events that remain unexplained to this day.
This is one of the fascinating cases I’ve come across. It’s been posted here before but the circumstances surrounding his death are so mind boggling that I believe the case still warrants discussion.
Weeks Prior: He began acting very strange in the weeks before his disappearance and ultimately death. He was described to have acted out of character: paranoid, erratic and anxious. He told his friends and mother that someone was spreading rumours about him and that someone was going to kill him. He would not explain who nor why. Other odd behaviour he exhibited include the fact that he stopped attending his AA meetings (he was 2 years sober at that point), left his worksite unlocked and quit his job without picking up his last pay cheque.
05JUL1996: He started preparations for his departure by withdrawing most of his money from his bank account and valuables from his safe deposit box including gold bars, platinum and jewelry. He would keep these in a fanny pack.
7JUL1996: His first attempt into the US was via a ferry from Victoria, British Columbia to Seattle, Washington. US immigration officials flagged him because he fit the profile of a drug courier: lone male traveling with a lot of cash. Red flag number one. Red flag number two was raised when he denied any criminal history. However, his background check showed that he had been convicted of drug and assault charges in the past. Thus, he was denied entry.
9JUL1996: Early morning he tried to cross into the US by foot through the Pacific Highway Border Crossing. He was denied by border patrol once again because he matched the description of a man involved in a car theft and the blue car was found nearby the border crossing. However, Blair denied these allegations and the officials let him go since there was enough evidence against him. They noticed that he had scratches on his hands and feet. Interestingly, his friend would later tell the investigators that she saw Blair driving a blue car that day, not his regular Chevette. He finally makes it across on his 3rd attempt to Seattle via a rental Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport. He drove the Nissan Altima from Vancouver International Airport to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Strangely, he purchased a roundtrip ticket to Frankfurt, Germany. Why Frankfurt? Well in late 1995 he worked on a construction project near the city and he dated a girl there during this time. However, his German girlfriend told the police later that he never informed her that he was coming. Blair never got on that flight. Instead, he cashed in his credit for a one way ticket ($800) to Washington, DC. Quite a few sources point out the price because it was double the cost of a roundtrip ticket but I think it could’ve been just the earliest flight out to Washington.
10JUL1996: He arrived at Dulles International Airport in the morning ~6:45am and rented a Toyota Camry. Then he started the 7 hour drive to Knoxville, Tennessee. The first sighting of him in Knoxville was at a gas station ~5:30pm. He had trouble getting into his car with the key and called for a repair service. When the clerk arrived, he realized that Blair had been trying to open the Toyota Camry with his Nissan Altima key (remember the other rental?). However, when he tried to advise him to check his pockets for the right key, Blair was determined that he had the correct key. Ultimately, the clerk dropped Blair off at Fairfield Inn and called a tow truck for the Camry.
LAST SIGHTING: Blair checked in at the inn around 7pm and continued to display strange behaviour. From surveillance footage, he entered and exited the lobby 5 times in 40 min. The hotel staff also described him to be paranoid and anxious, seemingly waiting for someone to attack at any moment.
11JUL1996: He was found dead in the morning at 7:30am by two construction workers at the construction site of a hotel across from Fairfield Inn. There was $4000 in cash scattered around his body in US, Canadian and German currencies. His socks, shoes and along with his pants were taken off. Knox County Sheriff described it “like somebody else pulled them down for him”. There was also a black duffel bag near his body with maps and receipts. The Toyota Camry key he couldn’t find at the gas station? Yes, it was also by the body. Autopsy showed that the cause of death was sepsis due to a blow that ruptured his stomach--likely from a crowbar or club. Toxicology showed that there was no alcohol or drugs in his system.
There wasn’t much evidence for the investigators:
  1. No murder weapon: He sustained several injuries and defensive wounds. It looked like he was beaten by the assailant(s).
  2. Lack of DNA evidence: Certain injuries indicate that he had been sexually assaulted, however no DNA evidence could confirm this. Furthermore, they also could not say when the assault had taken place and thus could have been unrelated to his death if it did happen. The only DNA evidence they found was a single long strand of hair. I couldn’t find any reports confirming whether it was from a male or female (not sure why)
  3. No witnesses: Security guard nearby heard a scream at 3:30am.
Sexual encounter gone wrong: This was the prevailing theory from investigators because of the way the body was found (naked from waist down), evidence of sexual assault and there was a truck stop nearby and the area was a hub filled with prostitution. So Blair solicits a prostitute, the deal goes bad and they (the sex worker and/or their pimp) try to scam him. A fight ensues and they accidentally kill him. I don’t really buy this theory since there was a lot of cash around the body. If it was just about the money, then why didn’t they take any? Even if they were scared that they had killed him, it’s hard for me to believe that they wouldn’t take any of the cash. I also read that some people believe that they didn’t take the cash because it was in different currencies: either they didn't want it to be traced back to them somehow while exchanging or just didn’t want to exchange it. However, I would argue this took place some time during the night. Unless the construction site is really well lit, then how could they tell it was a different currency? Even if the money looked foreign, wouldn’t they just scoop it up, run and then sort through it later? Also, they didn’t take any of the fanny pack’s valuables.
Sudden onset of mental illness: He was mentally ill and had a psychotic break. His psychosis drove him to create this elaborate escape plan and ultimately he either took his own life or a chance encounter took his life. Supporting evidence of this include his bizarre paranoid behaviour weeks prior to his death, history of mental illness in his family, history of alcohol abuse and age (31). However, he was never diagnosed with mental illness himself. On top of that, his friends all denied that they had seen him display any signs as well. Since there was no concrete evidence, it’s hard for me to believe this theory. To play the devil’s advocate, if he was truly stable and went to many of his friends and family to let them know someone was going aftekill him...why didn’t any of them report this to the authorities? Or even get him medical help? Very strange.
To be honest, he could very well have had mental illness. However, the reality of the threat and possible mental illness are not mutually exclusive. He may have been schizophrenic and his life was in real danger. Or even the threat of his safety may have triggered the psychosis.
Organized crime hit: He was involved in illegal activities (most likely drug related given his past), got in way over his head, pissed off the wrong people and they murdered him for it. This is the theory that I’m leaning towards. This is also related to his time in Germany. Unlike his girlfriend who described him as a “gentleman”, he was seen as “abrasive”, “confrontational” and got in fights with his German ex-workers. He also relayed that he actually feared violence from them! On top of this, a poster from sitcomonline claimed that his ex-girlfriend and friend revealed his trip to Germany ended earlier than expected and that he was different after he came back. But why would they stalk him all the way to Tennessee? Maybe it was just to mentally torture Blair and see him break (which he did) before finally killing him. Finally, his pants being pulled down could be a way to humiliate him.
I could go on for hours on this case but this post is so long already so I'll stop here. What do you guys think happened to him?
  1. My video on the case
submitted by jessie_berry to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]

2020.04.09 08:56 MWiatrak2077 america

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago.[19] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence.[20] The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories,[21] displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent.[21] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.[22][23] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power.
The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[24]
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[25] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value.[26][27] Although its population is 4% of the world total,[28] it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[29] Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.[30][31] It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending,[32] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[33]
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[34] After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans.[35] Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere.[36]
The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.[37][38][39] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[40]
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[41] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[42] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[41] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[41]
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.[43]
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[44] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[45]
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[46]
History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era
The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[19][47][48] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast[49] and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[50] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[51] The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.[52] Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America.[53]
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[54] The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida.[55] Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[56] In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming.[57]
A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo.[58][59] The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[60] Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[61] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[62]
Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[63] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons,[64][65] primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.[66][67]
While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600.[68][69] In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.[70] While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low.[68] Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.[68][69]
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[71] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[72][73]
European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[74] The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[75] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[76][77]
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[78] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[79]
European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[80] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[81][82] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[83][84] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[85]
With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies.[86] All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[87] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[88] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.[89]
During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[90] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[91]
In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[92] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[93][h]
During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[95] Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months.[96]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[97]
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day:[98] "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'".[99] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[98]
Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781,[100] Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[101]
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[102][103][104] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[105] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[106]
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[107] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[108] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[109] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[110] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[111]
American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States.[112] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[113] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[114] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[115] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[116][117][118][119] and the creation of additional western states.[120] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[121] For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture.[122] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[123] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[124]
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[124] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[125] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[126] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[127] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[128] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[129]
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States
Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[130] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[131] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[132]
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[133] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[134] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[135] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[136] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[137] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[138]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals[139] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[140] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[141] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[142][143][144]
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[145]
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[146] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[147] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[148] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[149] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[150]
U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[151] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[152] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen"[153] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[154][155] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[156] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[157]
Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[158] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[159][160] The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[161][162] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[163]
Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[164] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times.[165] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[166] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[166] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[167][168] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[169] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[170][171][172] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[173]
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[174][175][176][177][178] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[179]
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[180][181][182][183] This brought about unipolarity[184] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001
One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[185]
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[186] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[187] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[188]
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[189] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[190][191] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[192] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[193][194]
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[195] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[196] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[197] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[198] Barack Obama, the first African-American[199] and multiracial[200] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[201] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[202] and a relative decline in unemployment.[203] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[204] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[205]
President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
submitted by MWiatrak2077 to teenagersnew [link] [comments]

2020.04.04 18:34 clemaneuverers "Sasquatch", "Wildmen", "Matlox", "Yeti" "Almas"; call them what you will; there are credible historical and contemporary reports and evidence, from around the world, that show mysterious Humanoid/Ape-like Mammals exist in the wilderness of the Earth's continents.

What follows is a massively abridged (by me) version of Chapter 10 of "Forbidden Archeology" by Michael Cremo and Richard L. Thompson. Reading it recently I found it enthralling, but I wished some of the things described were better illustrated (if at all!). So I spent some time searching online for the appropriate images. I then abridged and formatted the chapter for posting to Reddit, and inserted the pictures that I found into the text. I've included, at an appropriate part of the text, a link to more recent info relating to DNA discoveries ...
Living Ape-Men?
There are signs that humans may have coexisted with more apelike hominids throughout the Pleistocene. We suggest that humans and ape-man-like creatures continue to coexist. Over the past hundred or so years, researchers have accumulated substantial evidence that creatures resembling Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and the Australopithecines even now roam wilderness areas of the world.
Hard Evidence Is Hard To Find
In 1775, Carl Linnaeus, the founder of the modern system of biological classification, listed three existing human species: Homo sapiens, Homo troglodytes (cave man), and Homo ferus (wild man). Although Linnaeus knew the latter two species only from travellers’ reports and secondary sources, he included them in his Systema Naturae.
Professional scientists have (1) observed wild-men in natural surroundings, (2) observed live captured specimens, (3) observed dead specimens, and (4) collected physical evidence for wild-men, including hundreds of footprints. They have also interviewed non-scientist informants and investigated the vast amount of wildman lore contained in ancient literatures and traditions.
Many will say that all the wildman evidence mentioned above exists simply in reports, and that reports alone, even those given by scientists, are not sufficient to establish the existence of wild-men. However, in palaeoanthropology, as in many areas of science, evidence exists primarily in the form of reports.
During World War II almost the whole collection of Homo Erectus fossils was lost during the Japanese occupation of China. The Homo Erectus fossils now exist only in the form of old written reports, photographs, and casts. And no one doubts that the originals did in fact exist.
But what about reports by scientists who claim they saw and examined dead specimens of wildmen, the corpses of which were not preserved? Most scientists will grant no credibility at all to such reports. In one case the reports are believed, and in the other they are not. Why? We propose that reports about evidence conforming to the standard view of human evolution generally receive greater credibility than reports about nonconforming evidence. Thus deeply held beliefs, rather than purely objective standards, may become the determining factor in the acceptance and rejection of reports about controversial evidence.
...refers to the scientific investigation of species whose existence has been reported but not fully documented.
Is it really possible that there could be an unknown species of hominid on this planet? There remain vast unpopulated and little-travelled areas. In particular, the North-Western United States still has large regions of densely forested, mountainous terrain which, although mapped from the air, are rarely penetrated by humans on the ground. A surprising number of new species of animals are still being found each year—about 5,000 according to a conservative estimate. As might be suspected, the great majority of these, some 4,000, are insects.
Yet, The largest of the bears, the Kodiak bear, was unknown to science until 1899. The largest rhinoceros, Cotton’s white rhino, was discovered in 1900. The mountain gorilla, the largest member of the ape family, turned up in 1901. The largest lizard, the Komodo dragon, was first captured in 1912. In 1975, the largest known peccary, or wild hog, Catagonus wagneri, was discovered in Paraguay. This animal was previously known only by Pleistocene fossils. In 1976, a large and entirely new species of shark, 4.5 meters (almost 15 feet) long and weighing over 700 kilograms (over 1,500 pounds), was caught by a U.S. Navy ship in the ocean waters off Hawaii.
European Wild-men
Many art objects of the Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians, and Etruscans bear images of semi-human creatures resembling wild-men. During the Middle Ages, wild-men continued to be depicted in European art and architecture. A page from Queen Mary’s Psalter, composed in the fourteenth century, shows a very realistically depicted hairy wildman being attacked by a pack of dogs.
Wild-men were thought to live in caves and forests. They subsisted on berries and roots. They were not considered ordinary humans. They were said to be members of the animal kingdom.
Northwestern North America
In 1792, the Spanish botanist-naturalist José Mariano Moziño, in describing the Indians of Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, Canada, stated:
“I do not know what to say about Matlox, inhabitant of the mountainous district, of whom all have an unbelievable terror. They imagine his body as very monstrous, all covered with stiff black bristles; a head similar to a human one, but with much greater, sharper and stronger fangs than those of the bear; extremely long arms; and toes and fingers armed with long curved claws. His shouts alone (they say) force those who hear them to the ground, and any unfortunate body he slaps is broken into a thousand pieces.”
Of the Spokane Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Elkanah Walker, a missionary who lived among them for 9 years, wrote in 1840:
“They believe in the existence of a race of giants which inhabit a certain mountain, off to the west of us. They inhabit its top. They hunt and do all their work in the night. They are men stealers. They come to people’s lodges in the night, when the people are asleep and take them and put them under their skins and take them to their place of abode without their even awakening. They say their track is about a foot and a half long. They frequently come in the night and steal their salmon from their nets and eat them raw. If the people are awake they always know when they are coming very near by the smell which is most intolerable”
Indians from the Columbia River region of the northwestern United States produced rock carvings that resembled the heads of apes. Anthropologist Grover Krantz showed photographs of the heads to a number of scientists and noted:
“Zoologists who did not know their source unanimously declared them to be representative of nonhuman, higher primates; those who knew the source insisted they must be something else!” Preconceptions seem to determine what scientists are prepared to see, and one thing most scientists are definitely not prepared to see is apelike creatures in the American Northwest.
On July 4, 1884, the Colonist, a newspaper published in Victoria, British Columbia, carried a story titled: “What is it? A strange creature captured above Yale. A British Columbian Gorilla.” Ned Austin, a railway engineer, spotted a human-like creature ahead of him on the tracks, blew the whistle, and stopped. The creature darted up the side of a hill, with several railway employees in pursuit. After capturing the animal, described as “half man and half beast”, the railway employees turned him over to Mr. George Tilbury. The Colonist reported: “‘Jacko,’ as the creature has been called by his capturers, is something of the gorilla type, standing about four feet seven inches in height and weighing 127 pounds. He has long, black, strong hair and resembles a human being with one exception, his entire body, excepting his hands (or paws) and feet is covered with glossy hair about one inch long. His forearm is much longer than a man’s forearm, and he possesses extraordinary strength”
Myra Shackley noted:
“The newspaper account of Jacko was subsequently confirmed by an old man, August Castle, who was a child in the town at the time. The fate of the captive is not known, although some said that he (accompanied by Mr. Tilbury) was shipped east by rail in a cage on the way to be exhibited in a sideshow, but died in transit”
Furthermore, there were additional reports of creatures like Jacko from the same region. Zoologist Ivan Sanderson said about Jacko in one of his collections of wildman evidence:
“one of his species had been reported from the same area by Mr. Alexander Caulfield Anderson, a well-known explorer and an executive of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who was doing a ‘survey’ of the newly opened territory and seeking a feasible trade route through it for his company. He reported just such hairy humanoids as having hurled rocks down upon him and his surveying party from more than one slope. That was in 1864.”
In 1967, in the Bluff Creek region of Northern California, Roger Patterson and Bob Gimlin managed to shoot a short color film of a female Sasquatch.
They also made casts of her footprints. These prints, which were 14 inches long, were 5.5 inches wide at the ball and 4 inches wide at the heel
Several opinions have been expressed about the film. While some authorities have said it is an outright fake, others have said they think it provides good evidence in favor of the reality of the Sasquatch. Mixed opinions have also been put forward. A man could have sufficient height and suitable proportions to mimic the longitudinal dimensions of the Sasquatch. The shoulder breadth however would be difficult to achieve without giving an unnatural appearance to the arm swing and shoulder contours”
Anthropologist Myra Shackley of the University of Leicester observed that the majority view seems to be
“that the film could be a hoax, but if so an incredibly clever one.”
Dr. Jeff Meldrum compares the surface anatomy between the costumes in Beneath the Planet of the Apes and the Patterson-Gimlin film. He says there’s no comparison.
More Footprints
As far as Sasquatch footprints are concerned, independent witnesses have examined and reported hundreds of sets, and of these more than 100 have been preserved in photographs and casts.
Footprint comparison by Professor Meldrum
Napier stated:
“if any of them is real then as scientists we have a lot to explain. Among other things we shall have to re-write the story of human evolution. Critics, however, assert that all these footprints have been faked. Undoubtedly, some footprints have been faked, a fact the staunchest supporters of the Sasquatch will readily admit. But could every single one of them be a hoax?
Grover S. Krantz, an anthropologist at Washington State University, was initially skeptical of Sasquatch reports.In reconstructing the skeletal structure of the foot from a print, he noted that the ankle was positioned more forward than in a human foot. Taking into consideration the reported height and weight of an adult Sasquatch, Krantz, using his knowledge of physical anthropology, calculated just how far forward the ankle would have to be set. Returning to the prints, he found that the position of the ankle exactly matched his theoretical calculations.
“That’s when I decided the thing is real,”
said Krantz.
“There is no way a faker could have known how far forward to set that ankle. It took me a couple of months to work it out with the casts in hand, so you have to figure how much smarter a faker would’ve had to be”
Typically the prints are 14 to 18 inches long and 5 to 9 inches wide, giving a surface roughly 3 to 4 times larger than that of an average human foot. Hence the popular name Bigfoot. To make a Sasquatch footprint as deep as an average human footprint would require a weight 3 to 4 times greater than that of an average-sized man. In all cases, however, whether the prints are in snow, mud, dirt, or wet sand, the Sasquatch prints are much deeper than those made by a man walking right next to them in the same material. Thus a weight of more than 3 or 4 times that of a man is required to make the Sasquatch prints. A 200-pound man would have to be carrying at least 500 pounds to make a good print. There are reports of series of prints extending from three-quarters of a mile up to several miles, in deserted regions far away from the nearest roads. The stride length of a Sasquatch varies from 4 to 6 feet (the stride length of an average man is about 3 feet). Try walking a mile with at least 500 pounds on your back and taking strides 5 feet long.
In several cases, the Sasquatch footprints indicated the maker strode over large logs, which a human of normal size could not have gotten over without disturbing the fresh snow clearly visible on their tops. In some cases, the distance between the toes of the footprints varied from one print to the next in a single series of prints. This means that besides all the other problems facing a hoaxer, he would have had to incorporate moving parts into his artificial feet. Furthermore, in order to insure that some of his fake prints would be found, any hoaxer would probably have had to make more trails of footprints than were actually discovered—and that means a lot of work.
In conclusion, critics have failed to explain all the footprints as the work of hoaxers. It would seem, therefore, that the footprints argue strongly for the reality of the Sasquatch, as demonstrated by the following case.
On June 10, 1982, Paul Freeman, a U.S. Forest Service patrolman tracking elk in the Walla Walla district of Washington State, observed a hairy biped around 8 feet tall, standing about 60 yards from him. After 30 seconds, the large animal walked away. Krantz studied casts of the creature’s footprints and found dermal ridges, sweat pores, and other features in the proper places for large primate feet. Detailed skin impressions on the side walls of the prints indicated the presence of a flexible sole pad. Krantz solicited opinions from other scholars and fingerprint experts. Tatyana Gladkova, a specialist in dermatoglyphics from the USSR Institute of Anthropology, said:
“I see dermal ridges of the arch type distally directed. I see sweat pores. If it’s a fake, it’s a brilliant fake, on the level of counterfeiting, and by someone well versed in dermatoglyphics”
Douglas M. Monsoor, a master police fingerprint examiner from Lakewood, Colorado, stated:
“I see the presence of ridge structure in these casts, which, in my examination, appears consistent with that type of ridge structure you would find in a human. Under magnification, they evidence all the minute characteristics similar to human dermal ridges. They appear to be casts of impressions of a primate foot—of a creature different from any of which I am aware”
The majority of the Sasquatch reports come from the northwestern United States and British Columbia. However, there are also numerous reports from the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. For example there were, as of 1977, 11 reports from New York, more than 24 reports from Pennsylvania, 19 reports from Ohio, 18 from Michigan, 9 from Tennessee, more than 36 from New Jersey, 19 from Arkansas, 23 from Illinois, 30 from Texas, and 104 from Florida, 74 reports from Montana, 32 from Idaho, 176 from Oregon, 281 from Washington, 225 from British Columbia, and 343 from California.
“One is forced to conclude that a man-like life-form of gigantic proportions is living at the present time in the wild areas of the northwestern United States and British Columbia.”
Central And South America
In Buckskin Joe, Edward Jonathan Hoyt reported an encounter he had in 1898 in Honduras. A large, apelike creature, about 5 feet tall, crawled over the end of his bunk. Hoyt killed the animal, which resembled a human
From southern Mexico’s tropical forests come accounts of beings called the Sisimite. Wendell Skousen, a geologist, said the people of Cubulco in Baja Verapaz reported: “There live in the mountains very big, wild men, completely clothed in short, thick, brown, hairy fur, with no necks, small eyes, long arms and huge hands. They leave footprints twice the length of a man’s.” “it looked like a bear, but it wasn’t from the description that they gave—no conspicuous ears, no ‘snout’” Similar creatures are reported in Guatemala, where, it has been said, they kidnap women and children
From the eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador come reports of the Shiru, a small fur-covered hominidlike creature, about 4 to 5 feet tall (Sanderson 1961, p. 166). In Brazil, people tell of the large apelike Mapinguary, which leaves giant humanlike footprints and is said to kill cattle.
Yeti: Wildmen of The Himalayas
Myra Shackley observed that Yeti are found in Nepalese and Tibetan religious paintings depicting hierarchies of living beings.
“Here, bears, apes, and langurs are depicted separate from the wildman, suggesting there is no confusion (at least in the minds of the artists) between these forms.”
After reviewing the available reports, Ivan Sanderson compiled the following composite description of the Yeti:
“Somewhat larger than man-sized and much more sturdy, with short legs and long arms; clothed in long rather shaggy fur or hair, same length all over and not differentiated. Naked face and other parts jet black; bull-neck and small conical head with heavy browridges; fanged canine teeth; can drop hands to ground and stand on knuckles like gorilla. Heel very wide and foot almost square and very large, second toe longer and larger than first, and both these separated and semi-opposed to the remaining three which are very small and webbed.”
In November of 1951, Eric Shipton, while reconnoitering the approaches to Mt. Everest, found footprints on the Menlung glacier, near the border between Tibet and Nepal, at an elevation of 18,000 feet. Shipton followed the trail for a mile. Already well known as a mountaineer, Shipton could not easily be accused of publicity-seeking. A close-up photograph of one of the prints has proved convincing to many. In 1956, Professor E. S. Williams photographed some prints on the Biafo glacier in the Karakoram mountains. Napier, who thought it likely that they were the superimposed prints of the front and rear paws of a bear, said
“It is impossible to state categorically that Williams’s prints are those of a bear and not of a Yeti, but in the spirit of Bishop of Ockham it seems more reasonable to explain a phenomenon in terms of the known rather than the unknown.”
Of course, in avoiding the relatively straightforward explanation that a peculiar set of tracks in snow was made by an unknown animal, one is forced to come up with all kinds of speculative hypotheses about the superimposition of prints of various animals and humans, or the transformation of such prints by melting, in a manner not clearly understood. And this would also appear to be a violation of a key aspect of Ockham’s razor—namely, that the simplest of competing theories is preferable to the more complex.
Some Buddhist monasteries claim to have physical remains of the Yeti. One category of such relics is Yeti scalps, but the ones studied by Western scientists are thought to have been made from the skins of known animals. In 1960, Sir Edmund Hillary mounted an expedition to collect and evaluate evidence for the Yeti and sent a Yeti scalp from the Khumjung monastery to the West for testing. The results indicated that the scalp had been manufactured from the skin of the serow, a goatlike Himalayan antelope. But some disagreed with this analysis. Shackley said they
“pointed out that hairs from the scalp look distinctly monkey-like, and that it contains parasitic mites of a species different from that recovered from the serow.”
In 1978, Lord Hunt, who headed the British Mt. Everest expedition of 1953, saw Yeti tracks and heard the high-pitched cry the Yeti is said to make. Lord Hunt, described by Shackley as “a vigorous champion of the Yeti,” had come upon similar tracks in 1953. In both 1953 and 1978, the tracks were found at altitudes of 15,000 to 20,000 feet, too high for the either the black or red bears of the Himalayas.
It is interesting to note that science has recognized the existence of many fossil species on the strength of their footprints alone. The hypotheses and reconstructions of cryptozoology (regarding animals actually alive) are no more daring, questionable, fantastic, or illegitimate than those upon which paleontology has based its reconstructions of the fauna of past ages.
The Almas of Central Asia
There is another wildman, the Almas, which seems smaller and more human. A drawing of an Almas is found in a nineteenth-century Mongol compendium of medicines derived from various plants and animals. The text next to the picture reads:
“The wildman lives in the mountains, his origins close to that of the bear, his body resembles that of man, and he has enormous strength. His meat may be eaten to treat mental diseases and his gall cures jaundice” Reports of the Almas are concentrated in an area extending from Mongolia in the north, south through the Pamirs, and then westward into the Caucasus region. Similar reports come from Siberia and the far northeast parts of the Russian republic.
Early in the fifteenth century, Hans Schiltenberger wrote in his book of the Tien Shan mountain range in Mongolia: “The inhabitants say that beyond the mountains is the beginning of a wasteland which lies at the edge of the earth. No one can survive there because the desert is populated by so many snakes and tigers. In the mountains themselves live wild people, who have nothing in common with other human beings. A pelt covers the entire body of these creatures. Only the hands and face are free of hair. They run around in the hills like animals and eat foliage and grass and whatever else they can find. The lord of the territory made Egidi a present of a couple of forest people, a man and a woman. They had been caught in the wilderness, together with three untamed horses the size of asses and all sorts of other animals which are not found in German lands and which I cannot therefore put a name to”
Myra Shackley found Schiltenberger’s account especially credible for two reasons:
“First, Schiltenberger reports that he saw the creatures with his own eyes. Secondly, he refers to Przewalski horses, which were only rediscovered by Nicholai Przewalski in 1881. Przewalski himself saw ‘wildmen’ in Mongolia in 1871.”
Shackley noted:
“The book contains thousands of illustrations of various classes of animals, but not one single mythological animal such as are known from similar medieval European books. All the creatures are living and observable today.”
The Pamir mountains, lying in a remote region where the borders of Tadzhikistan, China, Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, have been the scene of many Almas sightings. In 1925, Mikhail Stephanovitch Topilski, a major-general in the Soviet army, led his unit in an assault on an anti-Soviet guerilla force hiding in a cave in the Pamirs. One of the surviving guerillas said that while in the cave he and his comrades were attacked by several apelike creatures. The body of one such creature was found.
“It was covered with hair all over. But I knew there were no apes in the Pamirs. Also, the body itself looked very much like that of a man. We tried pulling the hair, to see if it was just a hide used for disguise, but found that it was the creature’s own natural hair. We turned the body over several times on its back and its front, and measured it. Our doctor made a long and thorough inspection of the body, and it was clear that it was not a human being. The body belonged to a male creature 165–170 cm [about 5½ feet] tall, elderly or even old, judging by the greyish colour of the hair in several places. The chest was covered with brownish hair and the belly with greyish hair. The hair was longer but sparser on the chest and close-cropped and thick on the belly. In general the hair was very thick, without any underfur. There was least hair on the buttocks, from which fact our doctor deduced that the creature sat like a human being. There was most hair on the hips. The knees were completely bare of hair and had callous growths on them. The whole foot including the sole was quite hairless and was covered by hard brown skin. The hair got thinner near the hand, and the palms had none at all but only callous skin.”
“The colour of the face was dark, and the creature had neither beard nor moustache. The temples were bald and the back of the head was covered by thick, matted hair. The dead creature lay with its eyes open and its teeth bared. The eyes were dark and the teeth were large and even and shaped like human teeth. The forehead was slanting and the eyebrows were very powerful. The protruding jawbones made the face resemble the Mongol type of face. The nose was flat, with a deeply sunk bridge. The ears were hairless and looked a little more pointed than a human being’s with a longer lobe. The lower jaw was very massive. The creature had a very powerful chest and well developed muscles. The arms were of normal length, the hands were slightly wider and the feet much wider and shorter than man’s.”
According to testimony from villagers of Tkhina, on the Mokvi River, a female Almas was captured there during the nineteenth century, in the forests of Mt. Zaadan. For three years, she was kept imprisoned, but then became domesticated and was allowed to live in a house. She was called Zana. (artists impression) “Her skin was a greyish-black colour, covered with reddish hair, longer on her head than elsewhere. She was capable of inarticulate cries but never developed a language. She had a large face with big cheek bones, muzzle-like prognathous jaw and large eyebrows, big white teeth and a ‘fierce expression.’” Eventually Zana, through sexual relations with a villager, had children. Some of Zana’s grandchildren were seen by Boris Porshnev in 1964. “The grandchildren, Chalikoua and Taia, had darkish skin of rather negroid appearance, with very prominent chewing muscles and extra strong jaws.”
Was 19th Century apewoman a yeti? 6ft 6in Russian serf who could outrun a horse was 'not human', according to DNA tests
In 1899, K. A. Satunin, a Russian zoologist, spotted a female Biaban-guli in the Talysh hills of the southern Caucasus. He stated that the creature had “fully human movements” (Shackley 1983, p. 109). The fact that Satunin was a well-known zoologist makes his report particularly significant.
Wildmen of China
“Chinese historical documents, and many city and town annals, contain abundant records of Wildman, which are given various names,”
states Zhou Guoxing of the Beijing Museum of Natural History. Two thousand years ago, the poet-statesman Qu Yuan made many references to Shangui (mountain ogres) in his verses. Li Yanshow, a historian who lived during the T’Ang Dynasty (a.d. 618–907), stated that the forests of Hubei province sheltered a band of wildmen. Wildmen also appeared in the writings of Li Shizhen, a pharmacologist of the Ming Dynasty (a.d. 1368–1644). In the fifty-first volume of his massive work on medical ingredients, he described several species of humanoid creatures, including one named Fei-fei.
Li wrote:
“‘Feifei,’ which are called ‘manbear,’ are also found in the mountainous areas in west Shu and Chu division, where people skin them and eat their palms. The You mountain of Sha county, Fujian province, sees the same ones, standing about one zhang (equal to 3.1 meters [ just over 10 feet]) in height and smiling to the people they come across, and are called ‘shandaren’ (men as big as mountains), ‘wildmen,’ or ‘shanxiao’”.
In the eighteenth century, the Chinese poet Yuan Mei made reference to strange creatures inhabiting the wild regions of Shanxi province, calling them “monkeylike, yet not monkeylike”
According to Zhou:
“Even today, in the area of Fang County, Hubei Province, there are still legends about ‘maoren’ (hairy men) or ‘wildmen.’ A local chronicle, about 200 years old, says that ‘the Fang mountain lying 40 li (2 li equals one kilometer [.62 mile]) south to the county town is precipitous and full of holes, where live many maoren, about one zhang high and hair-coated. They often come down to eat human beings and chickens and dogs, and seize those who fight with them.’A lantern on which there is an ornament of a ‘maoren’ figure was unearthed in this area during an archaeological excavation. It has been dated at 2,000 years”
In 1940, Wang Zelin, a graduate of the biology department of Northwestern University in Chicago, was able to directly see a wildman shortly after it was shot to death by hunters. Wang was driving from Baoji, in Shanxi Province, to Tianshui, in Gansu Province, when he heard gunfire ahead of him. He got out of the car to satisfy his curiosity and saw a corpse. It was a female creature, six and a half feet tall and covered with a coat of thick greyish-red hair about one and a quarter inches long. The hair on its face was shorter. The cheek bones were prominent, and the lips jutted out. The hair on the head was about one foot long. According to Wang, the creature looked like a reconstruction of the Chinese Homo erectus.
Ten years later, another scientist, Fun Jinquan, a geologist, saw some living wildmen. Zhou Guoxing stated: “With the help of local guides, he watched, at a safe distance, two local Wildmen in the mountain forest near Baoji County, Shanxi Province, in the spring of 1950. They were mother and son, the smaller one being 1.6 meters in height. Both looked human”
In 1961, workers building a road through the heavily forested Xishuang Banna region of Yunnan province in southernmost China reported killing a humanlike female primate. The creature was 1.2–1.3 meters (about 4 feet) tall and covered with hair. It walked upright, and according to the eyewitness reports, its hands, ears, and breasts were like those of a female human. The Chinese Academy of Sciences sent a team to investigate, but they were not able to obtain any physical evidence. Some suggested that the workers had come upon a gibbon. But Zhou Guoxing stated:
“The present author recently visited a newsman who took part in that investigation. He stated that the animal which had been killed was not a gibbon, but an unknown animal of human shape. It is worth noting that, over the past 2 years or so, some people in the western border areas of Yunnan Province say that the above-mentioned kind of Wildman still move about, and that another one has since been killed”
Consider the case of Pang Gensheng, a local commune leader, who was confronted in the forest by a wildman. Pang, who stood face to face with the creature, said;
“He was about seven feet tall, with shoulders wider than a man’s, a sloping forehead, deep-set eyes and a bulbous nose with slightly upturned nostrils. He had sunken cheeks, ears like a man’s but bigger, and round eyes, also bigger than a man’s. His jaw jutted out and he had protruding lips. His front teeth were as broad as a horse’s. His eyes were black. His hair was dark brown, more than a foot long and hung loosely over his shoulders. His whole face, except for the nose and ears, was covered with short hairs. His arms hung down to below his knees. He had big hands with fingers about six inches long and thumbs only slightly separated from the fingers. He didn’t have a tail and the hair on his body was short. He had thick thighs, shorter than the lower part of his leg. He walked upright with his legs apart. His feet were each about 12 inches long and half that broad—broader in front and narrow behind, with splayed toes”
Wildmen of Malaysia And Indonesia
In 1969, John McKinnon, who journeyed to Borneo to observe orangutans, came across some humanlike footprints. McKinnon asked his Malay boatman what made them.
“Without a moment’s hesitation he replied ‘Batutut,’” wrote McKinnon, “but when I asked him to describe the beast he said it was not an animal but a type of ghost. Batutut, he told me, is about four feet tall, walks upright like a man and has a long black mane. Like other spirits of the forest the creature is very shy of light and fire”
Later, in Malaya, McKinnon saw some casts of footprints even bigger than those he had seen in Borneo, but he recognized them as definitely having been made by the same kind of creature. The Malayans called it Orangpendek (short fellow). McKinnon stated:
“Again natives spoke of a creature with long hair, who walks upright like a man. Drawings and even photographs of similar footprints found in Sumatra are attributed to the Sedapa or Umang, a small, shy, long-haired, bipedal being living deep in the forest” (Green 1978, pp. 134 –135). According to Ivan Sanderson, these footprints differ from those of the anthropoid apes inhabiting the Indonesian forests (the gibbon, siamang, and orangutan). They are also distinct from those of the sun bear (Sanderson 1961, p. 219).
In a journal article about wildmen published in 1918, Westenek recorded a report from a Mr. Oostingh, who lived in Sumatra. Once while proceeding through the forest, he came upon a man sitting on a log and facing away from him. Oostingh stated:
“I saw that he had short hair, cut short, I thought; and I suddenly realised that his neck was oddly leathery and extremely filthy. ‘That chap’s got a very dirty and wrinkled neck!’ I said to myself. His body was as large as a medium-sized native’s and he had thick square shoulders, not sloping at all. . . . he seemed to be quite as tall as I (about 5 feet 9 inches). Then I saw that it was not a man.” “It was not an orang-utan,” declared Oostingh. “I had seen one of these large apes a short time before.”
What was the creature if not an orangutan? Oostingh could not say for sure:
“It was more like a monstrously large siamang, but a siamang has long hair, and there was no doubt that it had short hair”
Mainstream Science and Wildman Reports
Despite all the evidence we have presented, most recognized authorities in anthropology and zoology decline to discuss the existence of wildmen. If they mention wildmen at all, they rarely present the really strong evidence for their existence, focusing instead on the reports least likely to challenge their disbelief.
Hand and foot bones of wildmen, and even a head, have been collected. Competent persons report having examined bodies of wildmen. And there are also a number of accounts of capture. That none of this physical evidence has made its way into museums and other scientific institutions may be taken as a failure of the process for gathering and preserving evidence. The operation of what we could call a knowledge filter tends to keep evidence tinged with disrepute outside official channels.
However, some scientists with solid reputations, such as Krantz, Napier, Shackley, Porshnev, and others, have found in the available evidence enough reason to conclude that wildmen do in fact exist, or, at least, that the question of their existence is worthy of serious study.
Myra Shackley wrote to our researcher Steve Bernath on December 4, 1984:
“As you know, this whole question is highly topical, and there has been an awful lot of correspondence and publication flying around on the scene. Opinions vary, but I guess that the commonest would be that there is indeed sufficient evidence to suggest at least the possibility of the existence of various unclassified manlike creatures, but that in the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to comment on their significance in any more detail. The position is further complicated by misquotes, hoaxing, and lunatic fringe activities, but a surprising number of hardcore anthropologists seem to be of the opinion that the matter is very worthwhile investigating.”
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2020.03.18 14:26 adotmatrix The data-driven pandemic: Information sharing with COVID-19 is 'unprecedented'
Data released by governments and citizens worldwide is helping researchers respond faster
In the early days of Canada's COVID-19 outbreak, Elisa Baniassad was able to trace how new cases were spreading and plan her outings accordingly.
"When I plotted how the virus was being transmitted, I saw that it was from close contact. People weren't getting it out on the street, they were getting it at home from their family members," said the computer science instructor at the University of British Columbia.
Baniassad is one of a handful of people making use of the reams of data being collected and published daily around the world to help governments and citizens plan and be informed of the latest situation.
Her diagrams are published on, a website started by someone in Toronto to keep track of the information released by the provinces.
Welcome to humanity's first data-driven pandemic.
"This pandemic is unprecedented, and the amount of data sharing is unprecedented," said David Buckeridge, a professor of epidemiology at McGill University's medical school. "I've never seen this much activity of people making data so openly available."
Every day, countries and regional governments are releasing the number of new cases, tests conducted, deaths and recoveries. In some cases, they release how new infections are linked to others and how the virus is mutating as it hops borders.
This allows researchers to do quick analyses and forecast future infections, along with better advising governments and citizens on how to respond, Buckeridge said.
His team, in fact, received federal funding to measure countries' responses based on new daily cases.
"We're been trending towards this over time, being open and releasing data as it's generated," said Allison Black, a PhD candidate in epidemiology at the University of Washington in Seattle.
She is one of several people behind NextStrain, a website that traces the genetic mutations of the novel coronavirus and other pathogens for laboratory researchers to use.
"The release of coronavirus data has been incredibly inspiring. The scale that it's happening at is new," Black said.

Canada case data hard to compile

In Canada, daily news about new COVID-19 cases comes from provincial health authorities, often in inconsistent ways, and compiling it into a single national dataset is challenging. Still, some have stepped up.
Isha Berry, a PhD student at the University of Toronto's Dalla Lana school of public health, assembled a team that scans provincial releases each day and standardizes the data in one spreadsheet, which is publicly available.
But a spreadsheet makes it hard to see how the disease is evolving in Canada, so her team made an online dashboard that shows a daily portrait in a visual way.
"It allows people to see summaries at national level, to see what's happening in a clearer way," Berry said.
Another Canadian effort to collate and simplify information is, started by a project manager in Toronto. The world's largest maker of mapping software, Esri, is using the daily data from ViriHealth to power its own Canadian dashboard, released last Friday, which has the most granular geographic breakdown of cases.
Esri has clients in all levels of government, and they're all asking for help to better plan responses and resources, said Chris North, the company's director of technology adoption.
"A lot of them don't have time to react. They are dealing with other aspects of the crisis," he said.
Esri is also crossing global pandemic data with its own data on socioeconomic measures to see if it can identify areas that could be hit harder by the virus to help their customers prioritize responses.

Data details slim as cases grow

Baniassad is no longer able to trace how the virus is being transmitted in B.C. The data put out by the British Columbia government was detailed in the first few days but as the numbers grow, it's down to the bare essentials: number of new daily cases, deaths and recoveries.
Other provincial governments seem to be doing the same.
"It's frustrating because now they're just giving aggregate numbers for the population," Baniassad said. It's no longer possible to see how many new cases are linked, for example, to an initial cluster at the Lynn Valley Care Centre in Vancouver.
She compares it to Singapore, which continues to release detailed information on each case, including clusters of infection, such as 23 cases linked to a church or 47 cases at a dinner party.
"It's calming for people to have a sense that they're being fully informed," she said. "My mother likes going to church. Having full knowledge where the infection clusters are, we can make more informed decisions."

Resources to keep up with the COVID-19 pandemic

Dashboard from the University of Toronto's Dalla Lana school of public health
Esri Canada dashboard and community risk profiles
Radio-Canada dashboard (French)
Johns Hopkins CSSE dashboard
HealthMap, an animated map of global cases
nCoV2019Live by Avi Schiffman, a high schooler in Washington State
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2020.02.06 20:45 Megzfreelancewriting Sex work is (not) work

Sex work is (NOT) work!

I saw a trend on Twitter the other day that said sex work is work! I of course, had to check into why this was trending and what was being said because, I have to strongly disagree that sex work is work. I don't care how long being a sex worker aka hooker, prostitute, etc... has been around. It's NOT work! It's not a career or a "job." I don't know how anyone can say that it is. It's not like your child wakes up one day and says I want to be a hooker when I grow up like they do wanting to be a doctor, lawyer, firefighter, etc... Most people who end up in the sex worker trade do so because they're forced into it one way or another; either because they're homeless, runaways, addicted to some kind of drug, forced into the sex trade, or something else. It's not something someone wakes up and decides they want to do for a living. Here is a history of prostitutes: Italian courtesans knew freedom like no other prostitutes of the Renaissance period. While most women during this time were only truly able to educate themselves if they were sent to a convent, courtesans were able to study freely.Furthermore, courtesans were able to obtain the same security and stability as married women, and, unlike married women, they were actually able to embrace their sexuality.Widely considered the best educated and most cultured women of their time, these women were able to hold philosophical conversations and discuss poetry with their clients, in addition to providing sex services. Their influence became so great that they were actually able to affect politics by sharing their views with the politicians among their clientele.Contrary to popular belief, Japanese geishas were not actually solicited for sex (instead, they were entertainers and hostesses). To mistake a geisha for a prostitute was thought to be an incredibly shameful and dishonourable transgression. On the other hand, oiran, or “play women,” were in fact sex workers.Oiran were the highest ranked prostitutes during Japan’s Edo period (early 1600s-mid 1800s)—during which time prostitution was allowed. Considered skilled enough to entertain nobles, oiran often used extremely formal language and utilized elaborate costuming for their entertainment.Since they were able to escape the heavy patriarchal hand that often affected married women, these prostitutes were able to maintain their own power and influence without any hindrance.Throughout history, prostitutes have not exclusively been women–as seen, for example, in the Turkish bathhouses of the Ottoman Empire. With the rise of these bathhouses in the 15th century, young boys known as tellaks would help to bathe and massage their male clients, and even service them sexually.Even though sodomy was illegal during this time, tellaks would find other ways to pleasure their customers and sometimes form close relationships with them. They were even allowed to keep all the money they earned and would be well compensated for any services they provided.India’s complex history of prostitution has, at one time or another, featured around nine different tiers of sex workers. At the bottom, you’d find devadasis, originating from the untouchable caste.Unwillingly sold by their parents at ages as low as four, these women are forever pledged to the goddess of fertility, Yellamma. As they’re unable to marry mortal men, they work until they’re no longer considered young and attractive, and are cast out to live the remainder of their lives as beggars.At the highest tier were the ganika. Masters of 64 types of performing arts, ganika had an extensive knowledge of music, painting, theatre, and poetry.Whereas common prostitutes found themselves residing within overcrowded brothels, these elite courtesans took residence in well-furnished homes and even had their own servants. Since they stood as women of not just beauty, but refined intellect and skill, they were respected enough to be brought to public functions, such as festivals and parties.Of all the women in Greece’s long history of prostitution, none were held to such high standards as the auletrides. During a time when sex services were taxed by the state, auletrides were skilled in more than just the art of sexual pleasure. Many proved themselves to be not only accomplished singers and dancers, but even gymnasts and fencers.When hired out to entertain private parties and meetings, these women could end up earning the modern equivalent of several thousand dollars with just a single evening’s worth of work. Overall, they were able to find a respectable place within their culture and even found themselves featured in countless works of art and literature.In present-day America, Nevada is the only state that legally allows prostitution, within designated locations. One such brothel, the Moonlite BunnyRanch, has proven to be a fair and decent place for sex workers to earn their living.Not only are there strict rules stating that men must be using latex condoms during any sexual activity, STD tests are administered weekly to each of the 500 women licensed to work at the brothel.Drug use is strictly forbidden within the premises and any sexual limits set by the women are to be strictly followed by their customers. On top of it all, many of the women are in charge of creating their own marketing databases and even handle promoting themselves online.Prostitution in present day, Canada; Current laws on sex work, introduced by the Conservative government in 2014, make it illegal to purchase or advertise sexual services and illegal to live on the material benefits from sex work). Although it is legal to sell sexual services, in some cases it is illegal to solicit in public areas.It is the first time in Canadian history that the exchange of sexual services for money is made illegal. The Canadian Department of Justice, claims that the new legal framework "reflects a significant paradigm shift away from the treatment of prostitution as 'nuisance', as found by the Supreme Court of Canada in Bedford, toward treatment of prostitution as a form of sexual exploitation that disproportionately and negatively impacts on women and girls". Many sex workers' rights organisations, however, argue that the new law entrenches and maintains harm against sex workers since sex workers are still committing a crime, albeit there is an immunity from arrest for material benefits and advertising.The new laws came in response to the Canada (AG) v Bedford_v_Bedford) ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada, which found to be unconstitutional the laws prohibiting brothels, public communication for the purpose of prostitution and living on the profits of prostitution. The ruling gave the Canadian parliament 12 months to rewrite the prostitution laws with a stay of effect so that the current laws remain in force. Amending legislation came into effect on December 6, 2014, which made the purchase of sexual services illegal. There has long been a general agreement that the status quo of prostitution in Canada was problematic, but there has been little consensus on what should be done. There is an ideological disagreement between those who want to see prostitution eliminated (prohibitionism), generally because they view it either as an exploitative or unacceptable part of society, and those advocating decriminalisation because they view sex workers as having agency and prostitution as a transaction; they also believe prohibition encourages the exploitation of sex workers by denying them legal and regulatory protections. The term "sex work" is used interchangeably with "prostitution" in this article, in accordance with the World Health Organisation (WHO 2001; WHO 2005) and the United Nations (UN 2006; UNAIDS 2002). The Conservative majority Government of Canada, however, was committed to a prohibitionist position, as was laid out in its new legislation introduced in 2014.While the act of exchanging sex for money has been legal for most of Canada's history, the prohibition of the activities surrounding the sex trade has made it difficult to practise prostitution without breaking any law. This is the first time that the exchange of sexual services for money is made illegal.Canada inherited laws from the United Kingdom. The first recorded laws dealing with prostitution were in Nova Scotia in 1759. Following Canadian Confederation in 1867, the laws were consolidated in the Criminal Code) in 1892. These dealt principally with pimping, procuring, operating brothels and soliciting. Most amendments to date have dealt with the latter; originally classified as a vagrancy offence, this was amended to soliciting in 1972, and communicating in 1985. Since the Charter of Rights and Freedoms became law, the constitutionality of Canada's prostitution laws have been challenged on a number of occasions, successfully so in 2013, leading to a new legislative approach introduced in 2014.Before the provisions were struck down, the Criminal Code made the following unlawful:
On March 26, 2012, the Ontario Court of Appeal struck down part of two provisions, subject to appeal, and the declaration is not in effect. An appeal was lodged with the Supreme Court of Canada on April 25, 2012, including an extension of the stay in effect. Lawyers for the respondents pointed out that the last minute appeal left them little time to respond. The activities related to sex work that are prohibited by law include operating a premises (sexual services establishment or brothel) where such activities take place, being found in such an establishment, procuring) for such purposes, and communicating such services (soliciting) in a public place, making it difficult to engage in prostitution without breaking any law. Automobiles are considered public spaces if they can be seen. On the other hand, working as an independent sex worker and private communication for such purposes (telephone, internet, e-mail, etc.) is legal. This ambivalence can cause confusion leading to one judge referring to the laws as 'Alice-in-Wonderland' and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court referred to the situation as "bizarre":
We find ourselves in an anomalous, some would say bizarre, situation where almost everything related to prostitution has been regulated by the criminal law except the transaction itself. The appellants' argument then, more precisely stated, is that in criminalizing so many activities surrounding the act itself, Parliament has made prostitution de facto illegal if not de jure illegal., per Dickson CJ at page 44
The legal situation has also been challenged in the rulings of two courts in Ontario in Bedford v. Canada_v_Bedford)—the respondents/appellants are sex worker activists Terri-Jean Bedford, Amy Lebovitch, and Valerie Scott—which described the laws as 'ancient' and emphasised that the purpose of the laws was not to eradicate prostitution but to mitigate harms emanating from it: "We are satisfied that the challenged provisions are not aimed at eradicating prostitution, but only some of the consequences associated with it, such as disruption of neighbourhoods and the exploitation of vulnerable women by pimps." OCA at 169In a dissenting opinion (2:3) regarding the potential harm of the laws, the appellate justices wrote:
The 1985 addition of the communicating provision to the existing bawdy-house and living on the avails provisions created an almost perfect storm of danger for prostitutes. Prostitutes were first driven to the streets, and then denied the one defence, communication, that allowed them to evaluate prospective clients) in real time. OCA at 364
'Prostitution' is not defined in Canadian statute law, but is based on case law which deems that three elements are necessary to establish that prostitution is taking place: (i) provision of sexual services, (ii) the indiscriminate nature of the act (soliciting rather than choosing clients), and (iii) the necessity for some form of payment.On October 25, 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada granted leave to appeal and cross-appeal the Ontario Court of Appeal Bedford decision. The court also granted the motion to stay the Ontario Court of Appeal decision until judgement is passed, meaning that the Criminal Code sections at stake were still in force in Ontario. Chief Justice Beverley McLachlan wrote:
These appeals and the cross-appeal are not about whether prostitution should be legal or not. They are about whether the laws Parliament has enacted on how prostitution may be carried out pass constitutional muster. I conclude that they do not. I would therefore make a suspended declaration of invalidity, returning the question of how to deal with prostitution to Parliament.
In a decision dated December 20, 2013, the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the laws in question. They delayed the enforcement of their decision for one year—also applicable to the Ontario sections—to give the government a chance to write new laws. Following the announcement of the decision, Valerie Scott stated in the media that, regardless of the decision, sex workers must be involved in the process of constructing the new legislation: "The thing here is politicians, though they may know us as clients, they do not understand how sex work works. They won't be able to write a half-decent law. It will fail. That's why you must bring sex workers to the table in a meaningful way." In response, Peter MacKay, the Minister of Justice, introduced amending legislation, C-36, the "Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act" on June 4, 2014, which received first reading. It came into effect on December 6, 2014.The act is criticized by sex workers who believe that it is worse for their safety than the previous law because it forces the sex industry further underground.

Constitutional and case law

The passage of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982 allowed for the provision of challenging the constitutionality of laws governing prostitution in Canada in addition to interpretative case law. Other legal proceedings have dealt with ultra vires issues (whether a jurisdiction, such as a Provincial Government or municipality, has the powers to legislate on the matter).In 1990, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld the law which bans public solicitation of prostitution, arguing that the law had the goal to abolish prostitution, which was a valid goal. Reference re ss. 193 and 195.1 of Criminal Code, (the Prostitution Reference), [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1123 is a decision of the Supreme Court of Canada on the right to freedom of expression under section 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and on prostitution. The Court held that, although the Criminal Code provision that prohibited communication for the purpose of engaging in prostitution was in violation of the right to freedom of expression, it could be justified under section 1 of the Charter and so it was upheld. The majority found, with a 5:2 split and both women dissenting, that the purpose of eliminating prostitution was a valid goal, and that the provision was rationally connected and proportional to that goal. Accordingly, the provision was upheld.In 2010, a decision of the Ontario Superior Court in Bedford v. Canada_v_Bedford) held that the key provisions of the Criminal Code dealing with prostitution (Keeping a bawdy house; Living off the avails; Soliciting or Communicating for the purpose) were invalid, but a stay of effect was put in place. This was appealed by the crown resulting in a decision by the Ontario Court of Appeal on March 26, 2012. That court upheld the lower court's ruling on bawdy houses, modified the ruling on living on the avails to make exploitation a criminal offence, but reversed the decision on soliciting, holding that the effect on communities justified the limitation. Two of the five judges dissented from the last ruling, stating that the law on solicitation was not justifiable. The court continued a stay of effect of a further twelve months on the first provision, and thirty days on the second.Both parties had up to sixty days to appeal this decision to the Supreme Court of Canada and on April 25, the federal government stated it would do so. On October 25, 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada agreed to hear the appeal.The Supreme Court also agreed to hear a cross-appeal by sex-trade workers on the Court of Appeal for Ontario's decision to ban solicitation. The Supreme Court of Canada heard the case on June 13, 2013, and overturned all restrictions on sex work, ruling that a ban on solicitation and brothels violated prostitutes' rights to safety.Meanwhile, a related challenge was mounted in British Columbia in 2007, but did not proceed due to a procedural motion by the Attorney General of Canada seeking dismissal on the grounds of lack of standing) by the litigants. This was upheld by the BC Supreme Court in 2008, but successfully appealed in 2010. The Attorney General then appealed this decision of the British Columbia Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada who released their decision on September 21, 2012. They dismissed the appeal enabling the case to once again proceed in the court of first instance.The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics report Street Prostitution in Canada (1993) stated that police activity is mainly directed at the street level. Over 10,000 prostitution-related incidents were reported in 1992; 95% communicating offences and 5% bawdy-house and pimping offences.In 1997, they reported a sharp increase in the number of prostitution-related incidents recorded by police for 1995, following two years of decline. Since these are police figures they are just as likely to reflect enforcement rather than actual activity.[31] The report also stated that in the period 1991-5, 63 known prostitutes were murdered (5% of all women killed in Canada).[13]Separate reports have not been published since, but included in Crime Statistics in Canada. Data from the 2007 report show 5,679 offences in 2006 (17/100,000 population), and 4,724 in 2007 (14). This translates into a change in -17.6% between 2006 and 2007, and -27.6% between 1998 and 2007.[32]


The exact number of people in sex work is not known, since this cannot be collected reliably. Estimates vary widely, and should be interpreted with caution.About 10% to 33% of all prostitutes have been estimated to work primarily outside, and are thus more visible.[33] The 2006 Subcommittee on Solicitation estimated 5-20%.[5]According to some estimates, most sex workers are young women (average 22-25), who began working between 16 and 20, most are single, and estimates of the number of prostitutes who have children suggest this is between 30-70%. In some field studies, 62% of prostitutes in Vancouver, 50% in Toronto, and 69% in Montréal claimed that they worked for themselves, while the presence and influence of pimps was more extensive in the Maritimes and on the Prairies. Drug use has been found to vary substantially by region and gender: it is highest in the Atlantic provinces, lowest in Québec, and appears to be a problem for the men more than the women. However, all these figures need to be interpreted with caution and compared to the general population.[33]A 1998 poll suggested 7% of Canadian men have paid for sex at least once in their life.[34] This is much lower than in the United States, where in 1994, 18% of men stated they had paid for sex[35] and 15% in 2004.[36] However, these polls cannot be directly compared because the questions asked in each were not identical.

Street prostitution

Nearly all law enforcement of the anti-prostitution laws concerns the people involved in street prostitution, with the other forms of prostitution being virtually ignored. The enforcement generally focuses on the prostitutes, and not on their customers.[37]

Effects of section 213 (communicating)

More than 90% of prosecutions are under section 213 (communicating). Consequently, it has become the target of criticism that, while designed to prevent public nuisance, it ignores public safety. In practice, the communication law has not altered the extent of street-based sex work, but merely displaced it, often to more dangerous locations.[7] The STAR project showed that relocation to poorly-lit, underpopulated areas reduced unwelcome attention by police and residents but increased the likelihood of 'bad dates'.[5]

Prostitution issues by province

While sex work exists in all cities, one that has received a large amount of publicity is Vancouver[38] due to poor socio-economic conditions in the Downtown Eastside, and the murder of a large number of women working in the sex trade, a disproportionate number of whom were aboriginal. "Body rub parlours" may be establishments in which sex work takes place, which would be illegal under bawdy house and communicating laws. Vancouver's milder climate may favour street prostitution. However sex workers and their support services in Vancouver have been very organised and vocal in responding to media criticisms.[39][40][41][42] They have an uneasy relationship with the police.[43][44] British Columbia has also been the area of Canada where most research has been carried out.The murders of 60+ sex workers, most of whom were Indigenous, from the downtown eastside of Vancouver in the 1990s and subsequent trials focussed national attention on the safety of sex workers under current legislation, which eventually led to court cases) challenging the constitutionality of those laws. These trials did not focus on the overrepresentation of Indigenous women and girls in street sex and trafficking trade which has been largely attributed to three main root causes: gender inequality, a subordinate place in settler-colonial society, and targeted violence; thus when paired with the racism aimed at the Indigenous population by the settler-colonial society, a violent attitude towards the bodies of Indigenous street workers is accepted. In 2011, a public inquiry into missing and murdered women again drew attention to the interaction between safety and legislation.[45][46][47] It is most likely that Pickton was able to kill those women, specifically because they'd been displaced from the Downtown core in the "stroll" bounded by Helmcken Street north Seymour to Nelson, east to Richards and south to Helmcken Street to the industrial area in the Downtown Eastside.In 2012, a young Victoria man was convicted on charges relating to the prostitution of a child online. He was sentenced) to three years in prison.[48]

Prostitution and health

A study was reported as showing that 26% of Vancouver's female sex workers were infected with HIV, and that Vancouver's overall prevalence of HIV was about 1.21%, six times higher than the national rate. Dr. Patricia Daly, chief medical health officer for Vancouver Coastal Health, was quoted as saying "Our message has always been that you should assume sex trade workers are HIV positive". This remark was criticised as offensive and inaccurate. Subsequent correspondence showed this figure to be misleading. The data actually represented injectable drug users attending health services. With more health related problems in middle age groups[49]Saskatchewan's HIV problems have received some publicity when health authorities blamed injectable drug users (IDU) and street sex workers in 2009. However HIV is uncommon amongst sex workers unless they are also IDUs and the Regina Street Workers Advocacy Project was critical of statements that demonised one group.[50]

Prostitution and minors

Child prostitution is illegal, but there are community concerns that it is a growing problem. While expansive claims have been made as to its extent, expert reports conclude that such estimates cannot be relied upon. For instance, a 2002 report of the Justice Institute of British Columbia states that "Because of the illicit nature of commercial sexual exploitation, there is no way to accurately measure the number of children and youth being commercially sexually exploited. Estimates of the number of commercially sexually exploited children and youth in Canada vary greatly."[51]

Federal initiatives

The Criminal Code was amended in 1988 to include child sexual abuse, and linking juvenile prostitution to the “procuring” section. In 1995, the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Working Group on Prostitution stated that these provisions “have been ineffective in bringing customers and pimps of youths involved in prostitution to justice.” They reported that charges under these provisions were rare, and that juvenile prostitutes and their clients continued to be charged under the general summary conviction offence prohibiting street prostitution, as with adults. Enforcement problems resulted from the reluctance of youths to testify against pimps, and the difficulty of apprehending clients.


📷Entrance of the Queen's Bench of Alberta building (Calgary)Alberta's Child Welfare Act (1997) added the purchase of sex from someone under 18 as child abuse, with fines up to $2,000 and/or six months in jail in addition to Criminal Code penalties. The Protection of Children Involved in Prostitution Act (February 1999) provided that a child wanting to exit prostitution may access community support programs, but if not could be apprehended by police. They could then be confined for up to 72 hours in a protective safe house, where they can receive emergency care, treatment, assessment and planning. Customers and pimps can be charged with child sexual abuse and fined up to $25,000, 2 years jail or both.However, in July 2000, the law was ruled unconstitutional. The Provincial Court determined that it did not respect a child’s legal rights because it lacked the “procedural safeguards” to allow youth the right to answer allegations or seek judicial appeal. But in December the Court of Queen’s Bench quashed this. Nevertheless, the government had already introduced amendments ensuring that when a child is confined they be informed in writing as to why they were being confined, its duration, court dates and the right to legal representation. The child is also given an opportunity to contact Legal Aid and that they may request court review of the confinement.Amendments were also made to enable children to receive additional care and support, including extending the confinement period for up to five days and allowing for authorities to apply for a maximum of two additional confinement periods of up to 21 days each.


A 2002 British Columbia Government report[54] stated that some children end up in prostitution after running away from home, where they may have been victims of physical and/or sexual abuse. The report cited as causes of commercial sexual exploitation of children factors such as social isolation; low self-esteem; a dysfunctional family where violence and substance misuse were common; neglect; early sexual abuse or other traumatizing experience; dropping out of school; hidden disabilities, including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome—factors which pushed children into prostitution. Many children had a history of provincial care in a foster or group home, or living on their own, but some youth from well-functioning families had left home after a traumatic event becoming at risk of sexual exploitation once on the street. Some children came from families where prostitution was practised by other members, or from communities where prostitution was common.They found that some children were preyed upon by pimps who may slowly gain their trust, befriend them and provide them with food, accommodation and clothes before hooking them on drugs and alcohol and forcing them into sexual service. However, only a small proportion were found to be controlled in this manner, and older girls frequently introduced younger ones into the trade. Some pimps were considered as boyfriends, the report found. Pimps may use romantic techniques to seduce young girls. Where pimps appeared to be involved in recruitment, they worked in areas where young people congregate such as food courts in malls, community centres and schools, preferring unsupervised venues including fast food restaurants and bus stops but also supervised locations including drop-in programs, group homes, juvenile detention centres, youth shelters and treatment centres.[53] Runaway children are easily spotted by pimps at the bus and train stations of major Canadian cities.

Human trafficking in persons

In the early 1990s, pressure was building for action on the sexual exploitation of foreign children by Canadian tourists travelling abroad, even though the extent was unknown, leading to the introduction of a number of private member's bills.C-27 (1996) amended s. 7 of the Criminal Code to address this. s. 7(4.1) extended its extraterritorial provisions to 11 sexual and sex-related offences against minors (but does not specify purchase of sex), and applies Canadian law to foreign jurisdictions.Following enactment of C-27 in 1997, the Department of Justice was involved in the development of the United Nations’ Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and Canada became a signatory in November 2001 (in force as of January 2002). At the same time C-15 simplified such prosecutions which had previously distinguished between prostitution and other forms of sexual abuse.[13]In 2009, Joy Smith introduced Bill C-268, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (minimum sentence for offences involving trafficking of persons under the age of eighteen years)). This Bill amended Section 279.01 of Canada’s Criminal Code to create a new offence for child trafficking with a five-year mandatory penalty. Bill C-268 has received broad support from stakeholders concerned with human trafficking including law enforcement, victims’ services, First Nations representatives, and religious and secular non-governmental organizations. MP Joy Smith worked with her colleagues across party lines to gain support for the legislation. On September 30, 2009, Bill C-268 received near unanimous support from Conservative, Liberal and NDP parties and was passed by the House of Commons, although opposed by the Bloc Québécois. On June 29, 2010, Bill C-268 was granted Royal Assent and became law. The successful passage of a Private Members Bill is rare and it is only the 15th time in the history of the Canada that a Private Members Bill amended the Criminal Code.
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2020.01.28 16:59 SecretAgentIceBat Roundup: Transmission prior to seafood market? China, Canada, Sri Lanka, Pakistan updates. Good article on viral spillover from animal trade.

Science Magazine: Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally
As confirmed cases of a novel virus surge around the world with worrisome speed, all eyes have so far focused on a seafood market in Wuhan, China as the origin of the outbreak. But a description of the 1st clinical cases published in The Lancet on Friday [24 Jan 2020] challenges that hypothesis.
The paper, written by a large group of Chinese researchers from several institutions, offers details about the 1st 41 hospitalized patients who had confirmed infections with what has been dubbed 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). In the earliest case, the patient became ill on 1 Dec 2019 and had no reported link to the seafood market, the authors report. "No epidemiological link was found between the 1st patient and later cases," they state. Their data also show that, in total, 13 of the 41 cases had no link to the marketplace. "That's a big number, 13, with no link," says Daniel Lucey, an infectious disease specialist at Georgetown University.
Earlier reports from Chinese health authorities and the World Health Organization had said the 1st patient had onset of symptoms on 8 Dec 2019, and those reports simply said "most" cases had links to the seafood market, which was closed on 1 Jan 2020.
Lucey says that if the new data are accurate, the 1st human infections must have occurred in November 2019 -- if not earlier -- because there is an incubation time between infection and symptoms surfacing. If so, the virus possibly spread silently between people in Wuhan and perhaps elsewhere before the cluster of cases from the city's now-infamous Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market was discovered in late December 2019. "The virus came into that marketplace before it came out of that marketplace," Lucey asserts.
The Lancet paper's data also raise questions about the accuracy of the initial information China provided, Lucey says. At the beginning of the outbreak, the main official sources of public information were notices from the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. Its notices on 11 Jan 2020 started to refer to the 41 patients as the only confirmed cases, and the count remained the same until 18 Jan 2020. The notices did not state that the seafood market was the source, but they repeatedly noted that there was no evidence of human-to-human transmission and that most cases were linked to the market. Because the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission noted that diagnostic tests had confirmed these 41 cases by 10 Jan 2020 and that officials presumably knew the case histories of each patient, "China must have realized the epidemic did not originate in that Wuhan Huanan seafood market," Lucey tells Science Insider. (Lucey also spoke about his concerns in an interview published online yesterday [26 Jan 2020] by Science Speaks, a project of the Infectious Disease Society of America.)
Kristian Andersen, an evolutionary biologist at the Scripps Research Institute who has analyzed sequences of 2019-nCoV to try to clarify its origin, says the 1 Dec 2019 timing of the 1st confirmed case was "an interesting tidbit" in The Lancet paper. "The scenario of somebody being infected outside the market and then later bringing it to the market is one of the 3 scenarios we have considered that is still consistent with the data," he says. "It's entirely plausible given our current data and knowledge." The other 2 scenarios are that the origin was a group of infected animals or a single animal that came into that marketplace.
Andersen posted his analysis of 27 available genomes of 2019-nCoV on 25 Jan 2020 on a virology research website. It suggests they had a "most recent common ancestor," meaning a common source, as early as 1 Oct 2019.
Bin Cao of Capital Medical University, the corresponding author of The Lancet article and a pulmonary specialist, wrote in an email to Science Insider that he and his co-authors "appreciate the criticism" from Lucey.
"Now it seems clear that [the] seafood market is not the only origin of the virus," he wrote. "But to be honest, we still do not know where the virus came from now."
Lucey notes that the discovery of the coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome, a sometimes fatal disease that occurs sporadically, came from a patient in Saudi Arabia in June 2012, although later studies traced it back to an earlier hospital outbreak of unexplained pneumonia in Jordan in April 2012. Stored samples from 2 people who died in Jordan confirmed they had been infected with the virus. Retrospective analyses of blood samples in China from people and animals -- including vendors from other animal markets -- may reveal a clear picture of where the 2019-nCoV originated, he suggests. "There might be a clear signal among the noise," he says.
Straits Times: Wuhan virus: China bans wildlife trade nationwide until viral outbreak eases
China on [Sun 26 Jan 2020] ordered a temporary ban on the trade in wild animals as the country struggles to contain a deadly virus believed to have been spawned in a market that sold wild animals as food.
Raising, transporting, or selling all wild animal species is forbidden "from the date of the announcement until the national epidemic situation is over," said a joint directive from the country's market watchdog, agricultural ministry, and forestry bureau said in a joint statement.
The lethal virus, which has caused 56 confirmed deaths and nearly 2000 total infections in China, and spread to about a dozen countries, is believed to have originated in a market in the central city of Wuhan, where a range of wildlife was reportedly sold.
Conservationists have long accused China of tolerating a shadowy trade in exotic animals for food or as ingredients in traditional medicines, including highly endangered species such as the pangolin or tiger.
Health experts say the trade poses a significant and growing public health risk as potentially dangerous animal-borne pathogens that people would normal not be exposed to make the jump to humans.
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus that killed hundreds of people in China and Hong Kong in 2002-2003 also has been traced to wild animals, with scientists saying it likely originated in bats, later reaching humans via civets.
Civets, a cat-like creature, were among dozens of species listed on an exhaustive price list for one of the animal-trading businesses at the Wuhan market.
Other items included various rats, snakes, giant salamanders, and even live wolf pups.
Sunday's announcement said all businesses, markets, food and beverage outlets, and e-commerce platforms are "strictly prohibited from trading in wild animals in any form."
It added that "consumers must fully understand the health risks of eating wild animals, avoid wild game, and eat healthy."
The so-called bushmeat trade, along with broader human encroachment on wild habitats, is bringing humans into ever-closer contact with animal viruses that can spread rapidly in today's connected world, scientists say.
A study by the Global Virome Project, a worldwide effort to increase preparedness for pandemics, estimated that there are nearly 1.7 million undiscovered viruses in the animal kingdom, nearly half of which could be harmful to humans.
Peter Daszak, a virology expert with the project, told AFP its research also indicated that we can expect around 5 new animal-borne pathogens to infect humanity each year.
China has launched previous crackdowns on the wildlife trade, including after SARS, but conservationists say the trade typically resumes over time.
Anyone able to access Chinese National Health Committee website? Getting 404s for these:
Update on pneumonia of new coronavirus infection as of 24:00 on [25 Jan 2020]Update on pneumonia of new coronavirus infection as of 24:00 on 26 Jan 2020
Canada Broadcasting Corporation: Canada's 1st 'presumptive' case of coronavirus found in Toronto
Man in his 50s travelled from China to Toronto on Jan. 22 and became 'quite ill' within a day of arriving.
Canada confirmed its first "presumptive" case of coronavirus in Toronto as the number of infections worldwide surpasses 1,900 cases.
Public health officials announced Saturday [25 Jan 2020] afternoon the confirmed case -- a man in his 50s who had travelled to Wuhan, China -- was found at Toronto's Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Within a day of arriving, officials say, he became "quite ill," said Dr. Barbara Yaffe, associate chief medical officer of health with the provincial Ministry of Health. Officials say lab results were received Saturday afternoon. The man is in stable condition.
While the case has been confirmed by a test in Toronto, officials said it has yet to complete separate testing by the National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases in Winnipeg. The illness can't be officially confirmed until that testing is completed.
Toronto's medical officer of health Dr. Eileen de Villa says a team is tracking down those who might have been in contact with the man, whose family members are already in self-isolation.
What do we know about the case?
Officials said the man took a flight on 21 Jan 2020 from Wuhan to Guangzhou, then from Guangzhou to Toronto, arriving on 22 Jan 2020.
He is believed to have travelled "privately" from the airport to his home. Officials do not believe he took public transit. They have not said what part of the city the man lives in.
Upon arriving, he told family members he felt ill and called 911. Officials say paramedics arrived prepared, taking all necessary precautions "right from 1st contact" until the hand-off to the hospital's emergency department on [23 Jan 2020], officials say.
But in a tweet following Saturday's [25 Jan 2020] news conference, the Toronto Paramedic Union said the 1st responders who transported the man only learned he was infected with the coronavirus after the fact.
Toronto Public Health issued a statement in response saying it does not identify paramedics about patient lab results if they have not been exposed to a public health risk.
"In this situation, the paramedics used full personal protective equipment and no follow up was therefore necessary," said the statement from Dr. Rita Shahin, associate medical officer of health.
The union later sent a pair of follow up tweets, confirming that the division was notified by Toronto Public Health "of a change in condition to a patient that paramedics transported.
"Paramedics were fully protected during the emergency call. It remains unacceptable that they were not informed of the change in condition prior to the media release."
When the man arrived at Sunnybrook, hospital officials say he was immediately identified as possibly affected by the virus and placed into a negative pressure room to prevent any contamination, with health-care workers taking protective measures to ensure the safety of staff and other patients.
What's the likelihood it will spread?
Officials are now trying to determine exactly how much contact the man could have had with others since his return to Canada. Officials say any contact was likely limited to members of his household. Anyone who lived with the man is currently in "self-isolation," said Yaffe.
It remains unknown whether anyone travelling on the plane with the individual may have been exposed to the virus. Dr. David Williams, the province's chief medical officer of health, told reporters people without symptoms are not deemed to be contagious. But to what degree the man displayed symptoms in-flight has yet to be determined.
The federal government says it has been working with provincial, territorial and international counterparts since China 1st began reporting cases to make sure Canada is prepared to limit the spread of the infection.
"Canadian hospitals have strong infection control systems and procedures in place to limit the spread of infection and protect health-care workers," said federal Health Minister Patty Hajdu, who is expected to hold a news conference on Sunday [26 Jan 2020] morning.
What does "presumptive" mean?
Health officials referred to the case as "presumptive" because they're being cautious due to the detailed process of testing and validating the sample, said Dr. Allison McGeer, an infectious disease specialist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto.
When testing for a typical virus, technicians with the Public Health Ontario Laboratory would compare the sample with positive and negative specimens in order to verify a positive result, she said.
But because the test for the new coronavirus was developed so quickly based on positive cases overseas, it's standard practice to have 2 laboratories verify the sample. "You never call something definitive until 2 labs with 2 different tests have called it," McGeer said. "It would be really surprising if it wasn't confirmed."
How deadly is the virus?
Dr. David Williams, chief medical officer of health for Ontario, told the news conference that the province's health system acted as it should. "As a result, the risk to Ontarians is still low, and things are managed and well-controlled," Williams said.
It is not clear how lethal the new coronavirus is or even whether it is as dangerous as the ordinary flu, which results in 12 200 hospitalizations and about 3500 deaths yearly.
China reports 15 new coronavirus fatalities, with the total death toll now 56. While 41 people have died of the virus in China, the World Health Organization has not declared the outbreak to be an international public health emergency. So far, there have been 56 reported deaths attributed to the virus, all in China, according to China's state media.
The majority of those infections have been inside China, where the virus has mostly been concentrated in Wuhan city, although there have been confirmed cases reported in Shanghai and Beijing, along with Hong Kong and Macao.
Toronto is prepared to handle a coronavirus outbreak, health officials say. Outside of China, cases have been confirmed in France, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States, Viet Nam, Australia and Malaysia.
In China, transportation has also been shut down in roughly a dozen cities, home to roughly 36 million people. Canadian officials have said such mass quarantines are unlikely, even if the virus spread here.
Those with weakened immune systems are most vulnerable to severe disease. That includes the elderly and people with chronic illness, such as diabetes, cancer, heart or lung disease.
Those travelling to China, where the majority of infections have happened, are advised to avoid crowded areas and seek medical attention if they become sick. The federal government advises avoiding farms, live animal markets and contact with animals alive or dead, in addition to usual precautions.
Confirmation of this case comes just one day after Williams said it was only "a matter of where and when" the virus would arrive in Canada.
"Ontario is ready, our systems are ready," Williams said in a news conference Friday [24 Jan 2020]. "We're light years away of where we were in 2003," he said, referring to the SARS outbreak that killed 44 people in the Toronto area.
The federal government says measures to stem the risk and spread of diseases like the coronavirus are in place. These include messages on arrival screens at the Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver international airports reminding travellers to inform a border services officer if they are experiencing flu-like symptoms, as well as an additional health screening question on electronic kiosks used by international travellers.
If need be, officials say passengers will be referred to local hospitals, with the individual's travel history available to the hospital they may arrive at.
British Columbia's minister of health and provincial health officer said there have been no cases in B.C., and the overall risk to the province is still low. ""We are closely watching the situation in Canada and globally and are meeting regularly with our counterparts across the country to make sure we are prepared if cases arise in B.C.," Adrian Dix and Dr. Bonnie Henry said in a statement issued Saturday [25 Jan 2020].
Ontario Newsroom: Ontario Confirms 2nd Presumptive Case of Wuhan Novel Coronavirus; Wife of 1st Case, Now Confirmed Positive, has been in Self-Isolation
Today, Dr. David Williams, Chief Medical Officer of Health, confirmed that the wife of the province's first case of Wuhan novel coronavirus has tested positive for the virus at Ontario's public health laboratory. Since arriving in Toronto with her husband, this individual has been in self-isolation.
"We are working alongside Toronto Public Health, who has been in regular contact with the individual during their self-isolation period," said Dr. Williams. "Given the fact that she has been in self-isolation, the risk to Ontarians remains low."
Dr. Williams, joined by Dr. Barbara Yaffe, Associate Chief Medical Officer of Health, and Dr. Eileen de Villa, Medical Officer of Health for the City of Toronto, will provide an update on the emerging situation at 11:30 a.m. at Queen's Park. A media advisory will be issued shortly with further details.
Reuters: Sri Lanka confirms first case of coronavirus: health official
Sri Lanka has confirmed the first case of coronavirus in the country, a senior Sri Lankan health official said on Monday.
“A Chinese lady, who is in her 40s, arrived on the 19th as a tourist and fell ill on the 25th and was confirmed as having the coronavirus following a test on Monday,” Sudath Samaraweera, the chief epidemiologist with Sri Lanka’s Ministry of Health, told Reuters, adding that this marks the first confirmed case in the island nation.
The new flu-like virus, first reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan, has killed more than 80 people and infected more than 2,700 others. Although most cases identified remain in China, more than a dozen other countries have so far reported cases.
The Express Tribune: Tally of suspected China virus cases in Pakistan rises to five
According to sources in the health ministry, 2 samples from Multan have been sent to Hong Kong for confirmation as there are no laboratories in Pakistan equipped to diagnose the pathogen. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) received the samples last night [26 Jan 2020], they added.
One of the 2 suspected coronavirus patients in Multan is a Pakistani national, said the sources.
On [Sat 25 Jan 2020], NIH chief Major General Dr Aamer Ikram said a Chinese national had been admitted to the Nishtar Hospital, Multan and kept in the isolation ward after he showed symptoms of the disease including flu, cough and fever.
Test reports are expected to arrive in the next 24 to 48 hours. The patients will receive necessary treatment based on the results of test reports.
According to sources, the Chinese national, hospitalised in Multan, travelled from China to Dubai and reached Karachi on [21 Jan 2020]. After landing in Karachi, he took a flight to Multan.
Three Chinese nationals were also admitted to Lahore's Services Hospital and shifted to the isolation ward on [Sat 25 Jan 2020].
According to hospital sources, the suspected patients were residents of the Chinese city of Wuhan and had recently arrived in Lahore.
Meanwhile, the Foreign Office has confirmed that all Pakistanis in Wuhan, and in other parts of China, are safe.
China has expanded drastic travel restrictions to contain the viral contagion that has killed 56 people and infected nearly 2000, as the United States and France prepared to evacuate their citizens from a quarantined city at the outbreak's epicentre.
China has locked down the hard-hit province of Hubei in the country's centre in an unprecedented operation affecting tens of millions of people to slow the spread of a respiratory illness that President Xi Jinping said posed a "grave" threat.
Originating in Hubei's capital of Wuhan, the virus has spread throughout China and around the world, with cases confirmed in around a dozen countries as distant as France, Australia and the United States.
The World Health Organization puts the number of confirmed cases reported from mainland China at 1975. "This includes 324 severe cases and 56 people who have died," the WHO added.
submitted by SecretAgentIceBat to China_Flu [link] [comments]

2020.01.22 14:42 The_Mighty_Jagrafess Whiskey Wanderings - The Origins of Affordable Whiskey, Part 1.

I’m sure many of you are curious about the origins of our fine subreddit, so I figured that I’d better set the record straight before history, as it so often does, twists the facts into a dubious amalgam of incorrect facts and hearsay.
Frist, you need to know a little about our founder, u/sabre252, who we’ll refer to as Sabes for the remainder of our tale. Sabes is a gentleman of impeccable character, uncanny intelligence, and undeniable wit. People who meet him are neatly divided into two distinct categories: those who are completely taken with his presence, passion, and drive - and those who are wrong. And while this sub is only a handful of weeks old, its true origins date back much further.
Our first stop is July 7th, 2012, at a truck stop just outside Vancouver, British Columbia. Sabes has just pulled off of Highway 1 after a gruelling shift behind the wheel of his custom Peterbilt 379 low rider. He eases the lowboy trailer back into a secluded corner away from the incessant, penetrating glare of the parking lot lights that blur the lines between night and day. As the engine shudders to a halt, he leans back in the seat and stares at the purple crushed velvet headliner, his eyelids sticking to his sandpaper eyes with each blink. “This was only supposed to be a 6 month thing. How did I end up here?” he muses to himself as he absentmindedly pulls the knob to set the parking brake. The angry hiss of escaping air cuts straight to his core, as if it were the voice of his scolding, disappointed mother lashing out at him for not having lived up to his true potential.
He awakes with a start as the warm morning sun streams in through the passenger side window. “Dammit” he groans, massaging his neck. Slumber had overtaken him before he was able to divorce himself from the driver’s seat and reach the familiar confines of his cramped, yet comfortable, bed in the sleeper. As he stumbles out of the cab and heads toward the truck stop diner, he smells the typical breakfast fare of sausage, eggs, and hashbrowns on the griddle from the rather talkative vent, rattling away on the side of the building just over the dumpster. As he shoves the stubborn double swing door open, a quick surveil of the landscape indicates that there’s not one single table open. He steels himself for the inevitable ask that no-one wants to make. “Mind if I join you?” he asks the least surly looking person he can find. u/rattlesnake501, or Rats as we’ll call him, looks up from his coffee and says “Sure bud, have a seat.”
Both men stare intently at their menus, hoping that the words will magically re-arrange themselves into a conversation starter, or at the very least discover something more appetizing than what has presented itself at first glance. “What brings you here?” asks Rats, looking to break the conversational stalemate that has extended from the conclusion of their initial introduction.
“Work. If you can call it that.”
“Not happy with the job? You drive a rig?”
“It’s...a way to pay bills, and yeah, saved up and bought my own. Thought it would give me more freedom to choose the work, but it’s all the same; same roads, same cargo, same deadlines. How about you? What’s your story?”
“Oh, nothing terribly exciting. Sales mainly. Sometimes a little problem solving for the customer.”
“Sales? Like door to door?”
“No no no.” says Rats, shaking his head while raising his coffee cup to his lips for one more sip of the rich, black, life giving elixir. “Farm equipment. Big stuff. I work with large conglomerates. You know, the places that bought up all of the mom and pop operations and turned them into huge mega-farms.”
“I see.” replies Sabes, scanning the room for the waitress who has so far failed to take his order.
The conversation winds the normal conversational highways, taking the socially acceptable exits of the weather, sports, and hobbies. Our unlikely pair discovers a mutual love of whiskey in its many, varied forms. Breakfast is served. Breakfast is consumed. The empty dishes bear witness to the hunger of the table’s occupants and not the quality of the food. As the separate bills are delivered by the waitress who clearly isn’t interested in working the morning shift, Rats grabs both and says “I’ve got it.”
“No need to do that. I can pay my way.” replies Sabes
“I’m sure, but work is paying for this one. I’ll tell them it was a sales lead. They’ll never notice the difference.”
“Alright, alright. Thanks.”
“Don’t mention it. Thanks for the company.”
Sabes nods as he stands up from the table and turns towards the showers.
“Hey,” Rats calls out after him, twisting in his seat in order to make easier eye contact with Sabes, “you on any social media? I’d love to talk whiskey with you again.”
“Not really. I occasionally browse Reddit, but that’s about the extent of it.”
“Good enough. Mind if I drop you a line there?”
“Yeah, I’d appreciate that. Here.” Sabes walks back to the table, grabs a napkin, and scrawls out his username, frowning slightly at his marginal penmanship. “Hope you can read that.”
“Perfect. Stay safe out there.”
“Thanks. You do the same.”
Sabes turns his attention once again towards the showers. Despite the nagging feeling that today is going to be as ugly as yesterday, things are already looking looking up; the shower has working hot water. “Miracles do happen.” Sabes mutters under his breath. He stands head down under the hot, liquid relief issuing from the tiny orifices of the shower head. The water caresses his neck, relaxing tired muscles, making him feel human again. He chuckles to himself as he replays the conversation with Rats in his head. “You never know who you’ll meet out here.”
submitted by The_Mighty_Jagrafess to affordablewhiskey [link] [comments]

2020.01.08 22:46 SoItShallBeWritten WSJ: Co-parenting sites skip love marriage and go straight to the baby carriage (actual article)- *A Must Read*

OOPS follow up on prior paywalled link I posted, here’s content:
When Jenica Andersen felt the tug for a second child at age 37, the single mom weighed her options: wait until she meets Mr. Right or choose a sperm donor and go it alone.
The first option didn’t look promising. The idea of a sperm donor wasn’t appealing, either, because she wanted her child to have an active father, just like her 4-year-old son has. After doing some research, Ms. Andersen discovered another option: subscription-based websites such as and Modamily that match would-be parents who want to share custody of a child without any romantic expectations. It’s a lot like a divorce, without the wedding or the arguments.
Given the prominence in today’s society of both single parenthood and online dating, this digital approach could be seen as a natural progression. It could also be considered shocking or even, as some have called it, an affront to marriage.
“It’s a controversial approach to creating a family and there are people who balk at it, but the idealized version of a man and woman falling in love is shortsighted,” said Ms. Andersen, now 38—and pregnant.
Modamily is a co-parenting website and app that matches prospective parents who want to raise a child together.PHOTO: MODAMILY
Using technology to find a platonic parenting partner comes at a time when it seems harder than ever to meet anyone the old-fashioned way. As people spend more time building their careers, it can be difficult to forge relationships outside the office, where romance has become verboten. And as the cost of living has increased, it has become harder for many people to consider marriage or children until later in life—all factors that have resulted in a declining fertility rate in the U.S.
When you meet someone on or Tinder, you can date someone for six months before you know whether the relationship is going anywhere. That’s fine when you’re younger, but when you’re in your mid-30s, you can’t wait for months to find out that person isn’t ready to have kids,” said Modamily founder Ivan Fatovic.
And it isn’t just single women like Ms. Andersen who are driving the demand for a tech solution to this modern problem.
“The alarm clock goes off for men as much as it does for women. You’d be surprised by the number of young, professional straight men who want to have kids,” said Patrick Harrison, co-founder of London-based PollenTree, the largest of the subscription-based co-parenting sites. (The service also connects people with egg and sperm donors.)
He said about 60% of the co-parenting seekers are women. The male clientele is evenly split between single gay men and heterosexual men, both seeking to be co-parents with women. There are also same-sex couples looking to have a mother or father figure in their child’s life.
The process of meeting people, determining if they are a fit and sorting out the logistical and legal issues of sharing custody can take months, if not years—which could be good for business. PollenTree and Modamily each charge U.S. users $30 a month, with discounts for longer subscription periods.
Neither co-parenting site conducts criminal background checks on their users, but Los Angeles-based Modamily partners with a background-check service if someone is interested in looking up someone they met on the site. PollenTree says it conducts some proprietary checks on users to ensure they are who they say they are.
Modamily’s Mr. Fatovic said the average monthly subscriber stays active for around five months, but that a new annual subscription option of $119 has become a popular choice. He said investors find it attractive because it bridges the dating-app and the fertility industries. (PollenTree doesn’t have outside investors.)
The methods of conception vary depending on the co-parents’ relationship and what they can afford, so they can range from natural conception to in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination.
The success rate is hard to measure. PollenTree has had roughly 90,000 members since its 2012 launch. Mr. Harrison estimates that more than 500 babies have been born as a result of co-parenting matches on the site.
With such shaky prospects, I wasn’t sure I’d find someone making any progress when I first started looking into this. I’ve spoken to several people who haven’t yet found a match. I began speaking with Ms. Andersen last May, just as she was starting to meet some potential fathers online.
She first had considered men she knew personally, but none of them panned out. She eventually spoke to 10 men she met through Modamily and PollenTree. Because of her first child, she has to stay in Montana, where she works as a geologist, so her options were limited. In April she began corresponding with Stephan DuVal, a cameraman in the film industry in Vancouver, British Columbia, a 10-hour drive from her.
Mr. DuVal, 36, said the women he dated weren’t interested in kids, so he turned to PollenTree, where he met a local woman who wanted to raise a child. She developed romantic feelings for him that he didn’t share, he said, so he broke it off. After he began messaging Ms. Andersen through PollenTree, then speaking with her on the phone, they decided to meet in person in June in Vancouver.
The two hit it off. Ms. Andersen was still talking to other men, but she told me after the first meeting with Mr. DuVal that she had decided on him. “He has all kinds of experiences that made me feel he could handle obstacles in uncharted territory with creativity and follow-through. He thinks in unconventional ways, and that matters a lot to me. I felt like I would not lose him if things didn’t go exactly according to plan,” she said.
When Mr. DuVal met her son and saw how she was as a mom, it solidified his decision to become a parent with her. He said he saw that she values helping her son make his own decisions. “It’s a beautiful way of communicating and being a parent,” he said.
At the end of July she met his parents in Canada and he met hers in Montana. They both say their families have supported their decision. And although neither Ms. Andersen nor Mr. DuVal went into this to find a romantic partner, the two say they have fallen in love.
When you’re talking about the next 20 years of your life, you start to understand the person better and you just show them what you really value,” Mr. DuVal said.
Each of them went through medical screenings, consulted lawyers and shared the state of their finances with one another.
Ms. Andersen’s doctor found signs that she could be entering perimenopause and suggested they try to conceive sooner than later. She adjusted her diet and exercise based on what she had read about optimizing her chances of getting pregnant. She and Mr. DuVal met again every month.
Ms. Andersen is now about 17 weeks pregnant.
Mr. DuVal and Ms. Andersen are in the process of figuring out their living situation. Will their nontraditional union end in marriage? “It comes up regularly in our conversations, but it’s not in the forefront,” Ms. Andersen said.
“I think about it a lot in my head because I’m a romantic at heart but it’s not bigger than what we’re doing now,” Mr. DuVal said.
They plan to draft a legal contract that lays out their parenting responsibilities, which they said they can’t do until the baby is born.
Their daughter is due in June, almost a year from when they first met.
submitted by SoItShallBeWritten to redscarepod [link] [comments]

2019.12.23 04:26 Diotoiren [ROLEPLAY] Canadian Directive 01.A (CD01A) (Backdated to 2038)

Canadian Directive 01.A (CD01A) (Backdated to 2038)

Approved by Director of the Armed Forces, Felix Moraine
In cooperation with LION_CONSTRUCT-04 and LION_CONSTRUCT-06 along with other experts
Additional Assistance from the General of the Canadian Guard Maintained secretly within the Canadian Quantum Vault
As per Canadian Directive 01 (CD01) ordered by Director of the Armed Forces Felix Moraine, the Canadian Forces will be renamed and the CALERT System/Threat Levels will be re-adjusted for the sole use of Canada. Additionally the Canadian doctrine has been adjusted to fit the new nation of Canada. Thus this all falls under the sub-directive CD01A.

Canadian Forces Administrative Regions

Canada faces two primary issues when it comes to the immediate defense of her territories. These two issues are scale and diversity, the vastness of the Canadian landscape both continental and overseas (Belize) leads to extreme distances and diversity. Diversity being the changing geographical landscapes, with parts of Canada being mountains, then flat and open plains, followed by swamp and lakes. This scale and diversity necessitates the creation of 4 primary Administrative Regions and a single secondary Administrative Region.
These 5(+1) regions build upon the previously established "Canadian Army Administrative Zones" and can be considered the continuation of this and the "Commonwealth Regions" system. Therefore each region is designed to ensure maximum continuity for ease of transition and efficiency. It should be noted that the regions are not divided solely on political regions and are instead primarily based on geographical/demographic information. The regions are as follows,
  • Canadian Forces Administrative Regions (CFAR)
    • Canadian Pacific Region (Blue): The Canadian Pacific region consists of what was formerly British Columbia and the Yukon Territory. The Canadian Pacific Regional Headquarters is located in Vancouver with a secondary headquarters in Kelowna. Nothing changes, and it should be noted this region was formed due to the strategic mountain blocks which separate the rest of the Arctic from the Yukon.
    • Canadian Prairies (Cream): The Canadian Prairies region consists of what was formerly Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Canadian Prairies Regional Headquarters is located in The Vermilion and secondarily in CFB Suffield. Nothing changes from the previous division.
    • Canadian Arctic (Pink): The Canadian Arctic region consists of what was formerly the Northwest Territories and Nunavut in addition to all of Canada's arctic waters. The Canadian Arctic Regional Headquarters is located Yellowknife and secondarily in Enterprise. Nothing changes.
    • Canadian Shield (Grey): The Canadian Shield region consists of what was formerly Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Newfoundland/Labrador. This change was made specifically to note the strategic distinction between primarily islands and those connected directly via land be it to Canada or the USA. The primary regional headquarters is located in Ottawa with a secondary headquarters in Quebec-City.
    • Canadian Maritime (Orange): The Canadian Maritime region consists of what was formerly Nova Scotia, PEI, St. Pierre and Miquelon, parts of Quebec, and parts of Newfoundland/Labrador. This change was made primarily to note the strategic distinction between island/land-borders. The regional headquarters is in Halifax, with a secondary headquarters in Saint John's.
    • Canadian Overseas (Not shown): The Canadian Overseas region includes all international bases under Canadian control in addition to the land formerly known as Belize. The primary headquarters is in the Vermilion, with secondary headquarters in Recife and Ladyville (Brazil/Belize respectively).
Technically Canada still operates a number of Canadian Forces Regional Headquarters which no longer "command" over a province. These will remain open largely due to geographical distance and as such nothing changes in this regard.
CANERT/Threat Level Assessment Systems

Canadian Alert System

The former CALERT system utilized by the UCR, has been reverted to the CANERT system to avoid confusion and will be used to determine and indicate the "state of readiness" of the entire nation for military action (But specifically the Armed Forces). Within closed doors the system has taken on an "unofficial" name as well, both of which will be listed. Other then that, the CANERT System is divided into 5 distinct levels, each of which prescribes a different level of readiness for the Canadian Military. It increases in severity from CANERT 5 (least severe) to CANERT 5 (Most severe).
CANERT System The Happening System Description Readiness
CANERT 5 It's not Happening Lowest state of readiness (It's not happening) Normal Readiness
CANERT 4 It might be Happening Increased intelligence watch and strengthened security measures (It might actually be happening...) Above normal readiness
CANERT 3 Guy's trust's Happening Increase in force readiness above that required for normal readiness (Guy's it's actually Happening.) All Forces ready to mobilize in 15 minutes
CANERT 2 IT'S HAPPENING! Major wars are occurring, next step to nuclear war. (IT'S HAPPENING!) Armed Forces ready to deploy and engage in less than 30 minutes
CANERT 1 It's Over. Nuclear War and/or Total War is imminent (Guys...I can't change the Maximum Readiness

Threat Levels (Strategic Assessment Levels)

The SAL has simply been slightly redone to reflect Canada over the entire UCR.
The Threat Levels or Strategic Assessment Levels (SAL) are the levels put in place to better assist current Canadian military planning. These threat levels help to accurately define the perceived threat of a nation-state, organization, or group/individuals, to Canada. The threat level is assessed based primarily around a military comparison to Canada. However considerations regarding politics, diplomacy, geography/location, and economy are also taken into account. The following are the threat levels with description, ordered from least to greatest. Note this Threat Level does not take into account nuclear weapons.
Threat Level (SAL) Description
Beta an Beta level threat designation is the lowest possible level. Most countries around the world will pose an "Beta" level threat, which generally means they do not have the capability to launch an attack on Canada or the Canadian people. The military or combat capabilities at this level also remain highly inferior to Canadian capabilities. Nations of this status might include Gabon, Tajikistan, etc.
Gamma a Gamma level threat designation is the next possible level. Another large amount of countries will pose a "Gamma" level threat. Such a threat would be nations who might not be capable of launching attacks on Canada, but could pose a threat to Canada in the far future. And furthermore could pose a regional threat to Canadian operations abroad. Generally military capabilities remain far inferior to Canada. Such nations might include the Texas Cluster, Venezuela, etc.
Epsilon an Epsilon level threat designation is the final minor threat. Countries under this designation may possess the capability to impede or prevent Canadian operations abroad, while lacking significant capabilities for campaigns against the Canadian homeland. Furthermore the military capabilities would be inferior but to a less serious degree. Such nations may include Mexico, India, the East African Federation etc.
Theta a Theta level threat is the first "major" threat designation. Countries under this designation may pose a serious threat to Canadian operations abroad, and could realistically pose a threat to the Canadian homeland. Military capabilities of Theta level threats remain either inferior or slightly equivalent. Such nations as the Commonwealth, France, or Japan etc would all qualify.
Sigma a Sigma level threat is the "second" and primary threat designation. Countries under this designation pose a threat to regions of the Canadian homeland and/or Canadian operations abroad. Furthermore Military capabilities in most cases are considered equivalent, or inferior. Nations under this level might include China, Russia, etc.
Alpha an Alpha level threat is the realistically most severe threat designation. Countries under this designation pose a serious threat to Canada as a whole, or large regions. Furthermore military capabilities in most cases are equivalent to Canadian capabilities. Nations under this level might include hypothetical nations, the USA(?), American Republic, etc
Omega an Omega level threat is a largely hypothetical threat, however is by far the most severe. Countries or entities under this designation pose a "termination" threat to Canada as a whole. Furthermore military capabilities are assured to be far more capable. Nations under this level all remain hypothetical.
M: Details can be found on the Canadian Wiki.

Restructured Canadian Forces

The Canadian Forces have gone through a total renaming (M: Straight to wiki), however this renaming also requires the formalization of the "specialization" regiments categories.
Previously the terms "Highlander, grenadier, dragoon" would lend information as to the specialization of a certain infantry regiment, however with the renaming will come the need to solidify this structure. Furthermore an in-depth explanation has been provided as to how a Mechanized Brigade Group operates.
Further explanation has also been provided to any other structural changes.

The Canadian Army

The Canadian Army which is the worlds premier fighting force and continues to be structured in the manner of a "Mechanized Brigade Group" which has been determined to be the most optimal structure through combat and exercises will continue its process of innovation.
However as the Canadian forces are undergoing a renaming, it is now important that a standardization process occurs to ensure the continuity of strengths that each Mechanized Brigade Group and even more importantly each regiment maintained.
Therefore the official standardization of forces can be seen below, (full tables with names, ranks, personnel, equipment can be found on the Canadian wiki).
  • Upper-level Formations (Strategic/Logistic): Upper-level formations include formal units that are primarily used for logistical, administrative, and mobility purposes. Generally these upper-level units are not deployed tactically and are instead meant to ease logistical restraints and other like concerns. It also assists in overall efficiency, ensuring network/communication standardization. Therefore during a real-world deployment, while a Field Army or Corp may be "deployed" strategically it wouldn't usually be used tactically.
    • Canadian Field Army: The Canadian Field Armies are upper-level operational formations of a field unit. Rarely deployed in a full force in one single theater, a Field Army is usually for operational administration purposes.
    • Canadian Corps: Are the second upper-level operational formation for field units. Again Commonwealth Corps are rarely operationally deployed and generally are only deployed as a corp to a region and not for operational combat.
  • Mid-level Formations (Tactical): Mid-level formations while at a first glance may seem "beneath" the upper-level formations, this is entirely not the case and in fact Mid-level formations are the most widely used and deployed units from a tactical perspective.
    • Canadian Division: A Canadian Division is the first Mid-level formation and is one of the main operational units. However it is not the primary unit, but assists in the facilitation of cooperation and cohesion between brigades. (2 brigades to a division).
    • Canadian Brigade: A Canadian Brigade is the primary Mid-level formation and the primary tactical formation. They while assisting in administrative duties are the primary tactical formation and as such face the highest number of deployments and frontline activity as a "uppelower level formation". Furthermore they are designed to act as "cohesive-small scale" armies which can operate independent of the heavy-logistical support that larger units may require. This also allows them to retain higher levels of mobility despite equal or greater firepower when compared to potential opponents. Additionally Canadian Brigades are specifically designed to facilitate greater inter-unit cooperation both between a Brigades sub-units but also between Brigades in general. This allows all the benefits of a larger "tactical force size" while retaining the benefits of smaller and more cohesive forces. A Canadian Brigade's capabilities are largely determined by it's type of infantry and armoured regiments, as these are the two primary combat units within a Brigade. Lower-level Formations (Tactical): Lower-level formations are the bread and butter units of the Canadian Army. They include all the various sub-units of a Canadian Brigade. It should also be noted that there while all units are trained to certain set standards and best practices, specific units also specialize in certain areas and thus carry different designations. Therefore a full list of unit-types for the lower-level formations can be seen.
Name Type Information
Combat Engineer Regiment Engineering/Logistics Each Canadian Brigade possesses a single Combat Engineer Regiment of whom's primary purpose is to maintain responsibility over tasks such as building and repairing roads/bridges, laying and clearing mines, disarming IEDs and other munitions, destroying enemy communication networks and other such activities. Personnel are able to conduct defensive combat operations and are trained to "standard infantry" quality. Furthermore personnel is divided into two primary categories, a "Combat Engineer" and "Sapper" category, the CEs are primarily focused on operations behind and on the frontlines whereas Sappers are involved all the way beyond enemy lines. Combat Engineer regiments are trained to operate with their designated infantry and armour regiments however are also provided training which allows for lateral movement to support other units outside of the brigade with ease.
Artillery Regiment Artillery/Fire Support Artillery regiments are simply regiments that operate highly mobile artillery in line with Canadian forces doctrine. Canada has largely done away with em-placed artillery and has moved towards highly mobile artillery capable of "mobility attacks and re-positioning". Each artillery regiment while trained specifically with their unit is like the other units capable of quality lateral movement to support other units as if they where their own.
Service Battalion Logistics Service Battalions are designed primarily with the intent of providing heavy logistical support and long-term battlefield medical care to the Brigade. Additionally they are capable of working with other units from differing brigades as are all such units. The goal of the Service Battalion is to ensure that the Brigade is capable of conducting warfare as per Canadian doctrine while ensuring full supplies and equipment.
Headquarters and Signals Squadron Communications/Administration An H&S Squadron is the command unit of the Brigade. It cooperates with all the other sub-units in ensuring the Brigade is capable of total operations and coordinates communications between other Brigades. While each sub-unit maintains it's own communications units, the H&S helps in smoothing and creating a more efficient system of operation. Generally this is also the unit that will command the Brigade overall.
Helicopter Squadron Tactical Air Support Helicopter Squadrons are capable of flying a variety of helicopters used by the Brigade and provide combat support, medevac, and logistical support. They are extremely diverse and capable of supporting other brigades as per standard training.
Field Ambulance Section Medevac Ensuring immediate medical care is highly important, therefore Canada is one of the few nations to still ensure a fully functioning Field Ambulance Section. A Field Ambulance Section is specifically dedicated to ensuring the medical safety of the Brigade, but is as per standard training cross-brigade capable.
Infantry Regiment Standard Infantry The Infantry Regiment is the standard high quality infantry which is the most common type of infantry regiment in the Canadian Army. All regiments regardless of any specialization must first meet the high standard of Canadian Infantry which has been developed over hundreds of years, but specifically saw mass innovation and improvement within the last twenty. Infantry Regiments are capable of operating in any environment efficiently and effectively.
Rapid Deployment Regiment Light Infantry Rapid Deployment Regiments are one of two forms of "Canadian Light Infantry" and are specifically designated to carry out certain aspects of Canadian Army Doctrine. These light infantry focus on mobility and maneuverability even more so than the standard infantry regiment and are used to rapidly respond to gaps within combat operations, conflict-lines, etc. They are capable of operating in all environments.
Heavy Infantry Regiment Heavy Infantry Heavy Infantry Regiments vary from standard infantry regiments mainly in function and equipment. Heavy Infantry Regiments are used both as "shock troops" capable of swiftly attacking and destroying enemy units, but also as defensive anchors for which standard Infantry Regiments can utilize as a base for defensive lines. Heavy Infantry Regiments tend to have access to heavy infantry fighting vehicles in more numeracy than other regiments as well.
Mobile Reconnaissance Regiment Rangers Infantry Mobile Reconnaissance Regiments despite what the name suggests vary heavily from the Rapid Deployment Regiments. MRRs are the varying regiments which specialize in specific environments beyond standard infantry training. These include some of the former highlander regiments, forrester regiments, and ranger regiments. Regimental specialization under the MRRs are designated on a per unit basis, and carried over from the past structure (regiments are not actually having personnel move around, just renaming).
Special Infantry Deployment Regiment Specialist Infantry Special Infantry Deployment Regiments are specialist infantry designated for a variety of situations. They are the highest trained and best soldiers the army has to offer, capable of operating in any environment as equals to Mobile Reconnaissance Regiments or other specialized regiments. In many cases a SIDR can be seen as the Armies "cleaner crews" which can be sent into any warfare zone and operate as special forces. Many former JTF2 personnel alongside other special forces personnel work under the SIDR branch, additionally the active JTF2 also falls under this branch. Special Infantry Deployment Regiments are also capable of amphibious, airborne, and other forms of maneuver warfare. Some are also specifically trained for urban environment warfare in mega-cities of which Canada has several.
Armoured Regiment Standard Armoured Regiment Armoured Regiments are the standard high quality trained armoured units of the Canadian Army. Capable of operating effectively in any environment and under any circumstances, they are the "cream of the crop" non-specialist armoured units of Canada. All armoured regiments must meet the high standards of the Armour doctrine before even considering specialization.
Rapid Armoured Deployment Regiment Light Armour Rapid Armoured Deployment Regiments despite their designation as "light armor" are very much still well equipped. This is largely due to the fact that Canadian equipment has been developed with the Canadian Army doctrine in mind. The goal of RADRs are to operate alongside the two types of mobile infantry and rapidly respond and fill gaps within the line or conflict area. They are capable of rapid movement from various objectives yet still maintain the ability to go head on against heavy armoured regiments.
Heavy Armour Regiment Heavy Armour Are like their infantry equivalent, an anchor force capable of hoisting offensive or defensive operations upon their shoulders, operating with little to no support effectively. They are highly effective at both urban and non-urban warfare, utilizing Canadian doctrine and equipment to peak effeciency against enemy armour and infantry alike. They are capable of operating both as shock troops but also as unbreakable defensive units.
Special Armoured Deployment Regiment Specialist Armour SADRs otherwise known as Special Armoured Deployment Regiments are the "best of the best" when it comes to armoured warfare. They operating alongside SIDRs are the "cleaners" of the Canadian Army, capable of handling opponents and environments that other regiments otherwise might struggle in. They maintain large numbers of former special forces personnel and other highly trained individuals and also have access to experimental technologies that other units otherwise do not receive.
Once again note that name changes, equipment to unit structure information, etc can be found (soon) on [the Canadian Page of Information](
Additionally information on the Home Guard and Primary Reserve can also be found on the information page.

Canadian Navy and Air Force

Note all changes occurring here are minor and of a naming convention nature. Any innovations are primarily doctrinal and will be detailed at a later date. (Find the changes on the Wiki).

Canadian Forces Locations

All Canadian owned bases have gone through a renaming process but retain general functional principals as per the Canadian Doctrine.

Canadian Forces Doctrine 01 (CFD01) - Rage

Approved by Director of the Armed Forces, Felix Moraine
In cooperation with LION_CONSTRUCT-04 and LION_CONSTRUCT-06 along with other experts
As per Canadian Directive 01 (CD01) ordered by Director of the Armed Forces Felix Moraine, the Canadian Forces will begin the creation process of a new series of "Doctrinal Writings" which will elevate and assist the Canadian Forces. These Doctrines under the series number CFD# will also assist in the development of future Canadian Defense Plans (CDPs) and future Strategic Threat Assessments (STAs).
CFD01 - Rage is the first piece of Canadian Forces Doctrine to be written and coincides with creation of a Canadian Nuclear Weapons arsenal. A doctrine for the use of nuclear weapons was deemed the highest priority as all other branches and areas of the Armed Forces have received much more development, than this new arena of warfare. The importance of a strong doctrine regarding our nuclear weapons capabilities must exist in order to operate as effectively as possible.
As it stands, we must maintain two primary goals in regards to our nuclear arsenals capabilities. Deterrent and Destruction, must guide the Canadian Forces as we continue to build upon an extremely well developed nuclear program.
Deterrent: Canada possesses both one of the premier nuclear arsenals but also the worlds only anti-nuclear weapon system. As such it would be possible to see our own arsenal fall into decline as we rely to heavily on "defensive measures" which do not necessarily assist in Deterrent. Therefore we must continue to expand our arsenal both for our submarines and our ground based launch sites. Deterrent must be achieved through overwhelming capability of our arsenal and not solely on defensive capabilities.
Destruction: We must be capable of destroying our enemy and their arsenal. Destruction must entail the ability to enact nuclear vengeance on that which may seek to destroy our own people.
Rage: Canada will rage, we will rage as we defend our home. We will rage, doing what we must to ensure the sanctity and safety of the Canadian People. We won't give in against insurmountable odds or threats of destruction. We will rage, until the end. Even in death, Canada through the Garden will continue onward, if not for victory, then for vengeance.
M: Wiki will be updated with name changes etc later.
submitted by Diotoiren to worldpowers [link] [comments]

2019.10.04 00:29 Pickup_your_nuts Today in History 04/10

submitted by Pickup_your_nuts to ConservativeKiwi [link] [comments]

2019.09.14 09:14 Diotoiren [EVENT] Canadian Army Doctrine and Structural Changes 2025.

Canadian Army Review and Structural Changes 2025
As ordered by the Ministry of Defense, effective immediately.
Following many field exercises, joint military training drills, international deployments, and Canadian citizens voicing their input via the 2024 Policy Reading, the Canadian Army Headquarters and Command is finally able to establish a "full release" standard structure. While it should be noted that the Canadian Forces organization is to be considered a "living structure" based on the needs and requirements of the mission, the basic foundation has now been officially set.
Firstly the Canadian Army in conjunction with the Ministry of Defense, will be addressing issues and problems that arose during the period between the first introduction and the present. This time period included 5+ Army training exercises/joint-training missions, one active deployment, and consideration for a second deployment. These scenarios in a short span of under 2 years, was able to effectively highlight current issues where we are not meeting best-practice standards. It also has better enabled us when it comes to finalizing the "standards and best practices" for the Canadian Army moving forward. We will begin by discussing what was learned through the 4+ military exercises and 1 active deployment. The reports will be per exercise or deployment, and include a brief operation summary, operation review, and then all reports will be given a final "capabilities review" which will state what is being done to improve flaws or reward excellence. The report is listed chronologically.
  • Exercise Darwin's Law
    • Brief Operation Summary: Exercise Darwin's Law was/is a joint training mission which began over 1 year ago. It would then transform into Operation Darwin's Law following major increased tensions within the Oceanic/Pacific region. The primary focus of this operation was to test Canada's capabilities in regards to the rapid deployment of troops abroad up to a Mechanized Group size force.
    • Operation Review: Canadian analysts and military experts have determined several key areas in which we can improve or are excelling at. Firstly overall unit cohesion remains high, this is especially true as we have kept the foundations of the regiment system, therefore we can take it as that the regimental system is largely a success. However several issues regarding transporting and logistics during the initial deployment where made obvious. This included the transport of large amounts of heavy vehicles across vast oceans or land masses, along with the necessary logistical support vehicles and supplies required to maintain effective quality maintenance while deployed. While we are currently able to deploy between 1 and 2 fully equipped and fielded Mechanized Groups, current military command doubts its capabilities to deploy (outside of North/South America) on any larger scale effectively.
  • Operation Lone Timor
    • Operation Summary: Operation Lone Timor is Canada's first large scale real-deployment in a very long time. It consisted of a 1,000+ personnel size force being deployed to Timor-Leste rapidly with complex mission objectives and the expectation that spillover violence was possible and likely. The operation to date has included close cooperation with locals in the pursuit of the mission objectives, regular and consistent patrols via land, air, and sea, and information and moral warfare. Canadian Forces deployed to Timor-Leste have served bravely in the face of the unknown, and commendations to the Blackwatch Regiment has been submitted.
    • Operation Review: Operation Lone Timor has highlighted several areas in which we are not meeting best practices however has also showcased the resilience of Canadian forces. Firstly the operation had the benefit of proximity due to forces being previously deployed under Exercise Darwin's Law. There was no large distance to be traveled, and Canadian forces are close to the current base of operations in Australia Northern Territory. This means of course that most likely for any large scale deployment, our forces would be unable to deploy effectively on a large scale beyond 1 full strength Mechanized Group at any distance outside the continent (North/South America). This largely stems from a lack of air and naval support and transport vessels.
  • Exercise: Rite of Passage
    • Exercise Summary: Exercise Rite of Passage was an arctic based combined arms military training exercise. It tested the Armies capabilities when it comes to defending our northern territories or operating in large-scale cold weather environments. It was also the first time that the FSP-A1 and C10/11 equipment was able to be used in a test environment. Both of which proved widely successful. Some regiment officers of the Grey and Simcoe Foresters where also sent to Brazil to train in jungle warfare.
    • Exercise Review: Overall Canadian forces proved successful however allies taking part proved to be below operational standards. Noticeable issues with Canadian vehicles and the amounts in which we had where made known as Canadian forces struggled to work with the aging equipment and more modern equipment combined. Aging fleets of M113A3 and other types of vehicles severely hampered Canadian operations.
  • Exercise: The Highlands & Exercise: Western Woods
    • Exercise Summary: The Highlands was a high-altitude live training exercise in which members of one of our regiments specializing in high-altitude training participated in war games in the Cape Breton Highlands and Rocky Mountains. Exercise Western Woods was another operation that occurred simultaneously however in British Columbia forests. The goal being to train specialized regiments in forest and jungle warfare.
    • Exercise Review: This was the second and third times that C10/11 and FSP-A1 gear was able to be field tested. It showcased an enormous problem in that soldiers using the current standard yet dated equipment performed at rates up to 30% worse then those who where equipped with the newly developed gear. It also showcased an overall lack of capabilities when it comes to defending our sovereignty, as we are low on manpower. A full scale defense of Canada would prove impossible with current army force numbers.
  • Capabilities Review
    • Current capabilities are a mixed bag of good and bad. Currently the Canadian army suffers from a lack of armored and infantry fighting vehicles. It also suffers from a lack of logistical vehicles given the size of the nation and on the basis for future deployments. Therefore Canadian experts are advising an increase in capabilities in regards to maritime logistics and transport and ailand logistics and transport. They also advise an increase to current MBT and IFV/troop transport capabilities until such a time as the Exemplar and Paragon vehicle series are established (2028). Furthermore they advise that Canadian personnel and command is increased to better facilitate national defense and future deployments. Minor structural changes and solidification are also being advised.
    • Civilian Opinion is also advocating for similar moves and it is believed Canadian support would be behind any such measures, given the opinions expressed by Canadian citizens during the Policy Reading in 2024.
    • Regional Considerations there are a multitude of regional considerations that the Canadian Ministry of Defense must take into account. Firstly is the instability within the United States, as arms are pouring into the USA from China, rogue cyberwarfare groups launch corporate attacks, and several states in open hostility towards Washington D.C., the overall tension cannot be understated. Furthermore to the immediate south, rising tension between Venezuela and Brazil/Guyana threatens to involve Canada, Mexico, and others. The current capabilities do not allow for the handling of all of Canada's national defense needs.
    • Global Considerations Canada's global position has drastically changed in the mere span of 3 years. Once reliant on the USA for defense and military related operations, Canada's independence in this area has been forced to expand. Therefore the structure, command units, and overall force size must meet our requirements for national defense and for deployments abroad.
Canadian Forces Size and Structural Changes 2025
The following is being ordered after a capabilities review of the Canadian Army. Firstly we will outline structural enhancements and changes. Note the following structure is easily modified based on mission requirements. However what is listed would be considered a "standard" strength.
Unit Type Personnel Vehicles
Infantry Regiment 2500 x125 IFV, x25 heavy utility vehicles, x125 APV/C, x50 Light utility/armored utility vehicles.
Infantry Battalion 500 x25 IFV, x5 heavy utility vehicles, x25 APV/C, x10 light utility/armored utility vehicles.
Infantry Company 100 x5 IFV, x1 heavy utility vehicle, x5 APV/C, x2 light utility/armored utility vehicles.
Armoured Regiment 500 x60 MBT, x60 IFV, x25 heavy utility vehicles, x25 light utility vehicles.
Armoured Company 100 x20 MBT, x10 IFV, x5 heavy utility vehicles, x5 light utility vehicles.
Armoured Platoon 25 x4 MBT, x2 IFV, x1 heavy utility vehicle, x1 light utility vehicle.
Combat Engineer Regiment 500 x10 APV/C, x10 ARV, 60 heavy utility vehicles, 120 light utility vehicles
Combat Engineer Company 100 x2 APC, x2 ARV, x12 heavy utility vehicles, x24 light utility vehicles
Artillery Regiment 500 x12 IFV, x30 artillery batteries, x60 heavy utility vehicles, x50 light utility vehicles
Artillery Company 100 x3 IFV, x6 artillery batteries, x12 heavy utility vehicles, x10 light utility vehicles
Service Battalion 500 x15 IFV, x20 APV/C, x55 heavy utility vehicles, x50 light utility vehicles
Service Company 100 x3 IFV, x4 APV/C, x11 heavy utility vehicles, x10 light utility vehicles
Headquarters & Signals Squadron 120 x5 IFV, x10 heavy utility vehicle, x10 light utility vehicle.
Headquarters & Signals Section 20 x1 IFV, x2 heavy utility vehicle, x2 light utility vehicle
Tactical Helicopter Squadron 100 x15 Helicopters, x10 light utility vehicle.
Tactical Helicopter Platoon 20 x3 helicopters, x2 light utility vehicles.
Field Ambulance Section 9 x3 Field Ambulances
Moving onto the Canadian Army size, it has been determined after multiple sets of military exercises, several live deployments and possible future deployments, and following on the heels of the Canadian policy reading that Canada must increase its army size.
The population seemingly stands in support of this, having voiced their opinions loud and clear during policy reading sessions. Furthermore the defense of Canada and her allies in our current state is simply not reasonable.
TL:DR Recruitment Numbers: Our ending Regular Force personnel after recruitment will be 141,870. This includes the current regular force of 66,206. An additional 8,000 will be transferred from the Primary Reserve force, which leaves 67,664 to be recruited to the regular force. To supplement losses to our Primary Reserve Force, we will be recruiting an additional 10,000 who meet the eligibility requirements for new doctrine and training. Furthermore any reserves being transferred will be vetted to ensure loyalty and the meeting of Army standards. Due to popular support, the Army has changed it's final recruitment number to 160,785. Which means we have received a total number of 86,570 recruits. We suspect this is largely due to the popular support the military currently enjoys, following the Policy Readings in 2024 showcasing this.
As it stands the new Regular Force personnel structure will appear as follows come the completion of recruitment in 2026. They will begin increased training (on a continual basis) along with further doctrine enhancement following recruitment and basic training (by 2026). (Note we currently have divisions 2-8) We will be transferring the 1st Division back to Army for active service.
In order to ensure maximum organizational efficiency, we will also be transferring several Mechanized Brigade Groups around the provinces. These lateral moves switching MBG units parent divisions will simply allow for a more efficient administration. (M: A full detailed structure can be found on the Canada Wiki as I will be switching around some existing stuff, I don't have the space to do it all here. It will also be posted in an RP post for the sake of finalizing it IG along with some administrative/doctrine explanation stuff.)
Coinciding with the increase in the Federal budget for defense spending & with personnel increases as relating to the Army, several retired military bases will be re-opened, buildings will be revitalized or rebuilt completely, and each base will be able to house a Canadian division during peace time, and two during wartime.
The bases being rebuilt as follows,
  • Canadian Army Base: Whitehorse, Yukon (Revitalization/rebuild)
  • Canadian Army Base: Kamloops, British Columbia (New construction)
  • Canadian Army Base: Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador (Expansion and revitalization)
  • Canadian Army Base: Enterprise, Northwest Territories (New construction)
  • Canadian Army Base: Chilliwack, British Columbia (Revitalization/rebuild)
Each base will also have a port for small-medium size vessels (when possible, some bases are landlocked), and each base will have several runways and hangars to boot.
Canadian Forces: Upper level Administration and Region Changes (2025)
With an increasing force size and rapidly changing domestic and international objectives, the Canadian Army will be changing the way in which it handles upper-level Army administration. Previously the Canadian Army Command was divided into four geographical regions, Quebec, Western Canada, Ontario, and Atlantic Canada.
For a variety of reasons this will no longer be viable. It as per Yves-Francois singles out and divides Anglophone and Francophone soldiers, while also forcing Canadian Army personnel to spread thin over Western and Atlantic Canada.
Therefore the Ministry of Defense in conjunction with the Canadian Army, has created a new structure for administration which we suspect will carry over to Air Force personnel as well after further testing.
The structure we have to present divides Canada by strategic geography,
  • The Canadian Army Administrative Zones
    • Canadian Shield Region: Consists of Ontario and Quebec and is one of the primary administrative zones. The Ministry of Defense and Canadian Army Headquarters are both located in Ottawa. While the Canadian Shield Regional Headquarters is located in Gatineau, Quebec.
    • Canadian Maritimes Region: Consists of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI, and Newfoundland & Labrador. It administers the very important access way to the Atlantic and beginning of our Arctic Ocean Territories. The Canadian Maritimes Regional Headquarters is located in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
    • Canadian Prairies Region: Is a vast region and home to the primary training grounds for most new armoured regiments. It is an important region acting as the breadbasket for Canada and therefore deserves its own region, separate from the Pacific. The Canadian Training Headquarters is located in Suffield, as is the Canadian Prairies Regional Headquarters. This region consists of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
    • Canadian Pacific Region: Consisting of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory, the Canadian Pacific Region is one of our most important regions. Administrating the economically vital area of the Pacific, the Canadian Pacific Regional Headquarters is located in Vancouver, British Columbia.
    • Canadian Arctic Region: Is the fifth region of the new structure, and a new addition. It consists of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut Territory, and all other Canadian Arctic Lands. The primary base is in Enterprise, Northwest Territories, and the Canadian Arctic Regional Headquarters is based in Edmonton Alberta, and a secondary regional headquarters is based in Enterprise, NWT.
    • Canadian Overseas Region: The COR, or Canadian Overseas Regions is any area not considered Canadian territory that we are currently deployed to on a more permanent basis. As of now the COR will handle all the foreign deployments, this currently includes Timor-Leste and others.
As it stands, any other administrative organizations and such will remain as they are unless they are being directly replaced or mentioned here, or in our administrative and doctrinal outline (M: RP Post to come, consider this its roll for whether it passes.)
The Canadian Army has also begun the process of writing several varying emergency response plans, and other doctrinal plans. (RP posts from here on out).
Acquisitions for the Army
Due to the increase in military requirements, and with the completion of the C10/11 and FSP-A1 systems, we will begin the immediate acquisition of the following.
  • Colt Canada C10 Standard Issue Rifle: 350,000
  • Colt Canada C11 Standard Issue LMG: 75,000
  • FSP-A1 Series Standard Issue Infantry Equipment: 200,000
  • Total cost of roughly $7,000,000,000 over a 1 year period.
  • Rifles arrive within a year.
  • All FSP-A1 gear arrives within a years.
submitted by Diotoiren to worldpowers [link] [comments]

2019.09.07 02:55 MelioraOptimus Astrology Accuracy Study

For the record, I believe that astrology is a pseudoscience. However, just out of curiosity, I began studying Vedic Astrology a few years ago and many of the charts I've studied have yielded very accurate results. Most astrologers who have studied both tend to agree that Vedic Astrology is much more accurate and sophisticated than Western Astrology. In the Vedic Astrology system, there are over 60 divisional charts, several of which change every single minute, so the readings tend to be more precise and detailed. This is a stark contrast to Western Astrology, which tends to yield readings that are more vague. I've studied hundreds of charts, and I was shocked at just how accurate the readings were, especially in terms of predicting things such as whether or not one is LGBT+, going through a positive or negative phase of their life right now (and how previous periods of their life were like), of a certain personality type, married to someone of a different race, wealthy, etc. However, I've come to the realization that the readings may seem accurate to me because I've only studied the charts of people I know in person and/or people who are famous, thus I might be unknowingly focusing on readings that I know are accurate while brushing off readings that aren't that accurate (confirmation bias). Because of this, I really want to study the astrological charts of people I know absolutely nothing about in order to truly test the accuracy of Vedic Astrology. The form linked below asks the following questions:
  1. What is your name/nickname?
The only reason I'm asking this is because the Vedic Astrology software I use requires one to enter in a name for each profile. It doesn't have to be your real name. It can be a nickname or a completely fake name.
  1. What is your gender?
This info is needed because sometimes planetary positions can indicate different things based on the gender of the person in question (although this is pretty rare).
  1. What is your email address?
I need this in order to send you a list of your astrological readings. After you receive this email, please respond by saying which aspects are true and which ones are false.
  1. What is your date of birth?
Month, day, year
  1. What is your place of birth?
Preferred format:
City, State/Province/etc., Country (ex. Portland, Maine, United States, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, etc.)
  1. What is your time of birth?
Preferred format:
hh:mm:ss (ex. 12:44:22, 3:33:00, etc.)
If not using 24 hour time (aka "military time"), please remember to specify whether the time is AM or PM.
It is essential for the time of birth to be as accurate as possible. Some divisional charts change every single minute. Please only respond to this survey if you're 100% sure that the time of birth you give me is accurate AT THE VERY LEAST within five minutes.
  1. Is the birth time accurate?
This will contain 2 options:
- Yes. I'm 100% sure that the time of birth is accurate to the exact minute and/or the exact second.
- For the most part, yes, but the time might be off by five minutes or so at the absolute most.
If neither of these options apply to you, please don't respond to this survey at all.
  1. OPTIONAL: What is your natural hair and eye color?
The only reason why I’m asking this is because I want to see if there is a correlation between a certain haieye color and a certain planetary alignment. I’ve seen certain planetary alignments that supposedly indicate other factors of one’s appearance such as skin complexion and height (which have surprisingly been pretty accurate from the charts I’ve seen thus far), but there seems to be none that indicate one’s haieye color, so I want to see if there is a strong correlation between a certain haieye color and a certain planetary placement (especially in regards to planets in the 1st house).
  1. OPTIONAL: What is your religious affiliation?
The only reason why I’m asking this is because I want to see if there is a correlation between religious beliefs and a certain planetary alignment (there seems to be very little research on this topic).
Here is a link to the survey:
It may take me a little while to finish this once the results are in. It takes a pretty long time to truly analyze all the astrological charts of each person. I am a college student and the next few months will be pretty busy. To add on to that, once I send out all the readings, it will probably take a long time for everyone to respond back and for me to go through each response to determine the average percentage of readings that are right and wrong. I hope to finish this within a month, but it might take as long as 5+ months. But please still take this survey. This is something I’ve wanted to do for a very long time. I will know almost nothing about the people whose astrological charts I’m analyzing, so this will ensure that the test is accurate and not subject to confirmation bias.
submitted by MelioraOptimus to astrology [link] [comments]

2019.09.06 19:30 MelioraOptimus [Casual] Astrology Accuracy Study (everyone)

For those unaware of astrology, it is the idea that the placements of certain planets right at the moment of your birth can predict certain aspects of your life. It is widely regarded as a pseudoscience. For the record, I believe that astrology is a pseudoscience. However, just out of curiosity, I began studying Vedic Astrology a few years ago and many of the charts I've studied have yielded very accurate results. Most astrologers who have studied both tend to agree that Vedic Astrology is much more accurate and sophisticated than Western Astrology. In the Vedic Astrology system, there are over 60 divisional charts, several of which change every single minute, so the readings tend to be more precise and detailed. This is a stark contrast to Western Astrology, which tends to yield readings that are more vague. I've studied hundreds of charts, and I was shocked at just how accurate the readings were, especially in terms of predicting things such as whether or not one is LGBT+, going through a positive or negative phase of their life right now (and how previous periods of their life were like), of a certain personality type, married to someone of a different race, wealthy, etc. However, I've come to the realization that the readings may seem accurate to me because I've only studied the charts of people I know in person and/or people who are famous, thus I might be unknowingly focusing on readings that I know are accurate while brushing off readings that aren't that accurate (confirmation bias). Because of this, I really want to study the astrological charts of people I know absolutely nothing about in order to truly test the accuracy of Vedic Astrology. The form linked below asks the following questions:
  1. What is your name/nickname?
The only reason I'm asking this is because the Vedic Astrology software I use requires one to enter in a name for each profile. It doesn't have to be your real name. It can be a nickname or a completely fake name.
  1. What is your gender?
This info is needed because sometimes planetary positions can indicate different things based on the gender of the person in question (although this is pretty rare).
  1. What is your email address?
I need this in order to send you a list of your astrological readings. After you receive this email, please respond by saying which aspects are true and which ones are false.
  1. What is your date of birth?
Month, day, year
  1. What is your place of birth?
Preferred format:
City, State/Province/etc., Country (ex. Portland, Maine, United States, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, etc.)
  1. What is your time of birth?
Preferred format:
hh:mm:ss (ex. 12:44:22, 3:33:00, etc.)
If not using 24 hour time (aka "military time"), please remember to specify whether the time is AM or PM.
It is essential for the time of birth to be as accurate as possible. Some divisional charts change every single minute. Please only respond to this survey if you're 100% sure that the time of birth you give me is accurate AT THE VERY LEAST within five minutes.
  1. Is the birth time accurate?
This will contain 2 options:
- Yes. I'm 100% sure that the time of birth is accurate to the exact minute and/or the exact second.
- For the most part, yes, but the time might be off by five minutes or so at the absolute most.
If neither of these options apply to you, please don't respond to this survey at all.
  1. OPTIONAL: What is your natural hair and eye color?
The only reason why I’m asking this is because I want to see if there is a correlation between a certain haieye color and a certain planetary alignment. I’ve seen certain planetary alignments that supposedly indicate other factors of one’s appearance such as skin complexion and height (which have surprisingly been pretty accurate from the charts I’ve seen thus far), but there seems to be none that indicate one’s haieye color, so I want to see if there is a strong correlation between a certain haieye color and a certain planetary placement (especially in regards to planets in the 1st house).
  1. OPTIONAL: What is your religious affiliation?
The only reason why I’m asking this is because I want to see if there is a correlation between religious beliefs and a certain planetary alignment (there seems to be very little research on this topic).

It may take me a little while to finish this once the results are in. It takes a pretty long time to truly analyze all the astrological charts of each person. I am a college student and the next few months will be pretty busy. Additionally, I posted another survey here a little while ago that I also need to finish. To add on to that, once I send out all the readings, it will probably take a long time for everyone to respond back and for me to go through each response to determine the average percentage of readings that are right and wrong. I hope to finish this within a month, but it might take as long as 5+ months. But please still take this survey. This is something I’ve wanted to do for a very long time. I will know almost nothing about the people whose astrological charts I’m analyzing, so this will ensure that the test is accurate and not subject to confirmation bias.
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2019.09.02 15:00 rccrisp The Canadian Indie Rock Canon #52: Grimes – Visions

The Canadian Indie Rock Canon #52: Grimes – Visions
Apple Music
Google Play
Time travel doesn’t exists because you have people like me who would abuse the shit out of it. Take for example that one time my buddy and I went to McDonalds only to find a Taco Bell just five minutes away AFTER we had our meal. You bet your ass I’d jump into the time machine and go visit 30 minutes ago me. I’d be running at him and screaming before he opened the door to McDonalds and nearly out of breath cry out “BUDDY, walk one more city block and you’ll totally find a Taco Bell.” I go on this early 2000’s Pitchfork review level side tangent because if I had that same time machine right now I’d go back to the year 2012 before one Claire Elise Boucher, better known by her stage name Grimes, was a Elon Musk dating, shady business practice twitter defending, previous album dismissing, Azealia Banks kidnapping (or not) meme of a public figure. This isn’t to say that in spite all her lunacy (or maybe because of) Grimes continues to remain a compelling figure in the world of current pop whose next album leaves me patiently waiting on the outside and screaming on the inside. However it’d be nice to discuss her as a refreshing up and coming artists rather than deal with the three ring circus that seems to be orbiting her at all times.
However going back and researching Grimes and the world she existed in when this album landed you come to quickly realize there has always been an aura to Grimes, talking points that exists in the periphery of her existence as an artist. Born in Vancouver, British Columbia Grimes would eventually transplant herself to Montreal to attend McGill university in 2006. By 2007 she was already self releasing music on MySpace, the stage name “Grimes” coming from the fact that she listed “Grime” as her genre of music three times on her profile not knowing what the genre was. Early on she garnered buzz of her first two debut albums, the Dune inspired Geidi Primes and the follow up Halifaxa the release of which started Grimes putting herself full time into music eventually dropping out of McGill before finishing her degree in 2011. By 2012 Grimes signed with 4AD and relesed Visions in January that same year. In the press lead up much was made of Grimes attempt to induce insanity, the album recorded in an intense three week period where she locked herself up in her darkened apartment. Whether you take these stories at face value or not it’s all part of the charm of Grimes, seemingly one of the first of a generation of pop stars that have made a conscious decisions of building their brand and that all seeps into the music she makes.
It’d be difficult to talk about Grimes as an artists without bringing up that term “post internet,” a term she used herself in those early press interviews. She’s part of a generation of artists I lovingly dub the “iPod Generation,” the first set of kids who had the entire history of music at their finger tips, all the time, all they needed was a decent internet connection. Grimes isn’t the first person to genre mash, far from it, but the numbers of elements going on even in a single song can sometimes be staggering and yet it’s all done to distill a singular vision. Grimes despite all her effort makes pop music, strikingly beautiful pop music despite its apparent “darkness.” On “Genesis” the bouncy second track leans on bouncy synths, new wave flourishes and dream pop vocals put through a bubble gum filter that evokes a strange warmth. Yet as the track closes out it’s something natural and organic, the piano playing simple scales, that grabs you through it all. Much has been discussed about robots and the mechanical nature of the music of Visions but its always the songs more human elements that elevate the album beyond some chilly synth exercise.
Strongest of all these “human” elements among a sea of machines is of course Grimes voice. Rarely does she ever go bellow that ethereal falsetto she uses to great effect throughout the album. Take for example on “Be A Body” with its thumping beats that would find the song perfectly at home in a club. Grimes utters no words, yet she commands the heavy and grooving track singing notes that force her voice to its greatest heights. When the lyrics do kick in briefly she reverts to a lower registry with a much chillier tone, her detached tone seemingly in line with her word “I close my eyes until I see / I don’t need hands to touch me / Be a body.” On “Skin” the albums penultimate track Grimes shifts her voice from near ear splitting falsetto again to a sputtering chorus that sounds like a machine rattling off binary numbers as quick as it can. It’s surrounded by an urgent and sinister trip hop surroundings, a chilly song and quiet near album ender about the power of human contact.
Grimes perfectly allows all these ideas to coalesce perfectly on “Oblivion.” She takes Depeche Mode era synths but strips them of their usual soundscape quality and instead mixes it with piano and her voice to turn something that’s usually dark and makes a bubblegum level ear worm. The song, about a violent assault Grimes experienced that stuck in her head for years, mixes its sinister lyrical content with one of the most saccharine vocal performances on the album. It works, because Grimes drives her own personality into the songs, the fear of being attacked put up against the need for love, the seeming mask of sweetness hiding a dark core. In an age where artists need to reach beyond just performing their music Grimes is on the fore front of this and Visions is the perfect album in the social media age of oversharing, an album that goes beyond its music and reveals a snap shot into the artist’s mind.
(Tentative) Schedule
September 9: Cœur de pirate - Blonde (Indie Goes Pop Month)
September 16: Carly Rae Jepsen - E•MO•TION (hosted on /popheads and guest entry by Yoooooouuuuuuuu)
September 23: Tegan and Sara - The Con
September 30: Chromeo - White Women
Archive Link
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2019.07.31 06:15 indioYVR 33 [M4F] Come see summer in Vancouver / go snowboarding in the Winter

Sorry for the humble-brag(s) and the overuse of parentheses. Common sins of a programmer.
I'm a Canadian Permanent Resident Cardholder living in Vancouver, BC Canada. I'm 33, single, never been married, never had kids and am an atheist/lapsed Catholic.
I'd say I'm a [7.5] but you can see for yourself on IG if we hit it off. I'm 5'10", 170 pounds and last time I measured and based on my extensive Reddit research, my Andres Bonifacio's on the average side.
Where I'm probably above average is my credit rating: after 10 years in my field, I have since stolen a cushy, high-paying job from the Canadian fin-tech industry like any good immigrant would. Now I live alone in a pretty nice apartment in a pretty nice part of town with a view of the Science World museum. I've tried dating foreigners here but more and more I've been learning that the grass only seems greener on the other side.
Speaking of grass, I take full advantage of the legalized status and impeccable quality of British Columbia Cannabis. We can partake it together or I can enjoy it alone in private. It's just something I discovered late in life that has given a lot of tangible benefits.
Just know that when we're hanging out at the beautiful beaches or are snowboarding at night with this view in a resort that's only a little over an hour away from downtown Vancouver (where I live), there's a chance I might be under the influence.
Other than that I'm a regular human adult. I do all my own chores, save some of my money and even send some back home. I've invested in nice cookware and am using them quite often. One of my hobbies is watching and then recreating Youtube recipes. I want to learn more about baking and pasta-making though - I'll trade you guitar lessons for that.
I enjoy live music and standup comedy. I believe in good experiences like a bold whisky or a great steak but am also conscious of my health and my effect on the planet. I eat vegetarian/pescetarian a couple of days a week, do intermittent fasting, and try to walk and bike whenever possible. I've also picked up running again and am up to twice a week 5k's.
As for what I'm looking for - really at this point a partner for the long term who I can potentially build a life with. I've spent my youth working and sacrificing to get to this point and now that life seems great just the way it is, I feel like sharing it with someone else na. In bullet points, it'd be fantastic if you:
If you seem cool and I seem cool to you too, we can exchange Instagram handles and take it from there. I'm planning to come home and spend the holidays in Manila so we can probably meet then if we haven't already; my end goal, however, would be someone to actually be physically here in Canada with me. Without embellishment, Vancouver is a beautiful city that offers a fantastic lifestyle. It's honestly a little expensive, but I've been fortunate enough to have a career that can support it.
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2019.06.21 10:32 robertbenja How to Login PlentyOfFish Dating Site? - POF Sign in

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So if you are single and looking to meet soulmate for love, relationship or marriage, just go for internet dating without wasting your time. But wait..before joining any dating site you need to know about the best dating site "POF Dating" that will triple your chances to get perfect match according to you.
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2019.05.23 13:06 mfairview Village Farms International Begins Conversion of Half of 1.3 Million Square Foot Permian Basin GATES® Facility for Hemp Cultivation and Extraction Following Passage of Texas Hemp Law

Canada NewsWire VANCOUVER, May 23, 2019 VANCOUVER, May 23, 2019 /CNW/ - Village Farms International, Inc. ("Village Farms" or the "Company") (TSX: VFF) (NASDAQ: VFF) today announced that following the House of Representatives concurring with the Senate amendments, House Bill 1325 will become law in Texas (the "Texas Hemp Legislation"), subject to the June 16, 2019 deadline for the Governor to veto bills – a highly unlikely proposition for a bill that passed both the House of Representatives and Senate unanimously. As a result of this legislative change, Village Farms has begun conversion of half of its 1.3 million square foot, ultra-high-tech Permian Basin greenhouse (which utilizes the Company's proprietary GATES ® technology) for both cultivation of high-cannabidiol (CBD) hemp and CBD extraction. The Texas Hemp Legislation will require licenses for both the cultivation and processing of hemp. Village Farms plans to apply for the requisite licenses as soon as it is permitted to do under the new legislation. No time frame has yet been provided by the State of Texas for the licensing process.
Village Farms has commenced conversion of the approximately 635,000 square feet of growing area at the Permian Basin facility for hemp production, with the tomato crop having already been removed and the construction team on site. Conversion will incorporate all of the systems necessary for year-round hemp cultivation, however, the Company could, with existing systems and at this time of year, immediately begin cultivating hemp if it was licensed to do so. Village Farms expects the Permian Basin facility to be ready for year-round production in the third quarter of 2019, with extraction operations also to be added in the existing facility in 2019. Following passage of the federal 2018 Farm Bill in December 2018, Village Farms began design and development of the site-specific growing and technical systems to be prepared for conversion upon passage of a hemp bill in Texas.
"With the potential for a hemp bill to be passed in Texas, we took the calculated risk of readying a portion of our Permian Basin facility, and, as a result, we will be a first mover in the Texas hemp industry," said Michael DeGiglio, CEO, Village Farms International. "Village Farms applauds the Texas legislature and all of the supporters of HB 1325 on passing this landmark bill, in particular Sen. Charles Perry, Rep. Tracy King, and the Texas Farm Bureau. CBD is forecast to generate sales in the United States of more than US$16 billion by 2025 and, with passage of this bill, Village Farms can now definitively and aggressively move forward with its greenhouse and CBD extraction initiatives in our home state of Texas to capitalize on this significant opportunity. As always, we will pursue our greenhouse hemp opportunity with our consistent focus on short-term cash flow generation and achieving profitability as rapidly as possible."
Mr. DeGiglio added, "High-value crops around the world are grown in high-tech, controlled environment greenhouses and we believe that a significant proportion of the market for CBD, such as that for the high-end health and wellness products and the pharmaceutical industry will demand premium-grade product derived from hemp that is grown sustainably and to the highest standards and exacting specifications, and available continuously year round. As we are proving at our Pure Sunfarms joint venture in Canada, we expect the conversion of the existing Permian Basin operations to benefit from both our track record of developing large-scale agricultural products and our decades of site-specific experience, including climatological data, our expert growing team and an established skilled labour force. Importantly, as a result of its location in West Texas, the Permian Basin facility will not require supplemental lighting for year-round growing, contributing to our overarching objective of low-cost production. It's a significant advantage over operations in higher latitudes."
Completed in 2011 and located in Monahans, Texas, Village Farms' Permian Basin facility is one of the most technologically advanced greenhouses in the world. It is based on the Company's proprietary GATES ® technology, which uses sophisticated computer systems and software to control irrigation, fertilizers, carbon dioxide, light, temperature, ventilation, humidity and other climatic factors, with thousands of different variations. In addition to its 1.3 million square foot Permian Basin facility, Village Farms owns and operates three state-of-the-art greenhouse facilities totalling an additional 4.4 million square feet in West Texas, one of the best growing environments for hemp in the United States.
About Village Farms International, Inc.
Village Farms is one of the largest and longest-operating vertically integrated greenhouse growers in North America and the only publicly traded greenhouse produce company in Canada. Village Farms produces and distributes fresh, premium-quality produce with consistency 365 days a year to national grocers in the U.S. and Canada from more than nine million square feet of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) greenhouses in British Columbia and Texas, as well as from its partner greenhouses in British Columbia, Ontario and Mexico. The Company is now leveraging its 30 years of experience as a vertically integrated grower for the rapidly emerging global cannabis opportunity through its 50% ownership of British Columbia-based Pure Sunfarms Corp., one of the single largest cannabis growing operations in the world. The Company also intends to pursue opportunities to become a vertically integrated leader in the U.S. hemp-derived CBD market, subject to compliance with all applicable U.S. federal and state laws, Village Farms has established two joint ventures, Village Fields Hemp and Arkansas Valley Green and Gold Hemp, for outdoor hemp cultivation and CBD extraction and is pursuing controlled environment hemp production at a portion of its Texas greenhouse operations, which total 5.7 million square feet of production area.
Cautionary Language
Certain statements contained in this press release constitute forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable securities laws ("forward-looking statements"). Forward-looking statements may relate to the Company's future outlook or financial position and anticipated events or results and may include statements regarding the financial position, business strategy, budgets, litigation, projected production, projected costs, capital expenditures, financial results, taxes, plans and objectives of or involving the Company. Particularly, statements regarding future results, performance, achievements, prospects or opportunities for the Company, Pure Sunfarms, the greenhouse vegetable industry or the cannabis and hemp industries are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking information can be identified by such terms as "outlook", "may", "might", "will", "could", "should", "would", "occur", "expect", "plan", "anticipate", "believe", "intend", "estimate", "predict", "potential", "continue", "likely", "schedule", "objectives", or the negative or grammatical variation thereof or other similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts.
Although the forward-looking statements contained in this press release are based upon assumptions that management believes are reasonable based on information currently available to management, there can be no assurance that actual results will be consistent with these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements necessarily involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond the Company's control, that may cause the Company's or the industry's actual results, performance, achievements, prospects and opportunities in future periods to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, among other things, the factors contained in the Company's filings with U.S. and Canadian securities regulators, including as detailed in the Company's annual information form and management's discussion and analysis for the year-ended December 31, 2018.
When relying on forward-looking statements to make decisions, the Company cautions readers not to place undue reliance on these statements, as forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties and should not be read as guarantees of future results, performance, achievements, prospects and opportunities. The forward-looking statements made in this press release only relate to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this press release. Except as required by law, the Company undertakes no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
SOURCE Village Farms International, Inc.
Lawrence Chamberlain, Investor Relations, (416) 519-4196, [email protected] For further information: Lawrence Chamberlain, Investor Relations, (416) 519-4196, [email protected] CO: Village Farms International, Inc.
ST: British Columbia
-0- May/23/2019 11:00 GMT
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2019.04.30 04:40 Zugwat Historical Inaccuracies Present In The Star Wars/Indiana Jones Comic "Into the Great Unknown".

Into the Great Unknown

Firstly, a timeline of events should be established for future reference:
1 - Han Solo and Chewbacca land in the Pacific Northwest
2 - They are immediately attacked by a War Party of Hostile Indians of unknown extraction upon leaving the Millennium Falcon.
3 - Chewbacca and Han fight off the War Party, Han is mortally wounded
4 - Han perishes, Chewbacca yells in anguish causing the survivors of the War Party to flee in terror
5 - Dr. Jones and Co. find the Millennium Falcon 126 years later.
The Historical Inaccuracies Present in the Comic are Sectioned in the Following Categories:


Preface - What Is A "Warrior"?


Preface - Where did "Sasquatch" come from?

Commentary & Miscellaneous Questions

Now that the sections are listed out, we shall start with the Indians.

Preface - What Is A "Warrior"?

The War Party featured is of Central Coast Salishan origin, this is explained in Preface - Where Did "Sasquatch" Come From?; while the date given for the encounter is the late 1810's based off of writer W. Haden Blackman's estimation for when the story takes place.
Among Coast Salish Societies, distinctions were emphasized between Professional Warriors and those called upon to fight for the village, tribe, or a prominent War Chief (who was often a Professional Warrior themselves). Professional Warriors among the Central and Southern Coast Salish were deemed so if they met a mix of religious and personal qualifications (with family heritage taken into account for their success). If one came from a lineage that featured notable Warriors, had an aggressive and belligerent personality, and had quested for or obtained the proper Spirit Power (s) (commonly referred within Coast Salish communities as "Power(s)" but tends to be grouped in with vaguely defined Guardian Spirits outside of tribal communities), then that individual would be known as a Genuine Warrior with the pedigree to establish it.
This often results in being ostracized from the community due to aggressive behaviors and tendencies that conflict with the highly praised values of diplomacy and patience. Warriors were often notably few in number, with Puget Sound Salish Villages noting that it would be unusual for there to be more than two Warriors in a single village. While they were often ostracized for their temperament and predilection towards violence, they were often kept around for the same reasons in order to dissuade any potential attacks on the village. Being the most experienced in the ways of warfare, Professional Warriors were often given the title of War Chief when necessary.
Warriors raided the settlements of foreign or hostile tribes; bringing back loot in the form of slaves, various crafts, goods, and resources. Slaves of Warriors that met the religious requirements for power attended their masters in battle, and helped with other aspects like weapon maintenance and creation and healing wounds either the Warrior or Slave sustained. As previously noted, a Professional Warrior is rare in Coast Salish Society, whereas most non-natives would be familiar with Plains Indians that have a stronger emphasis on warfare than Coast Salishan tribes.
While the Coast Salish are a distinct group from their neighbors such as the Interior Salish (related), Wakashan, Chemukan, and Penutian tribes that range from Vancouver Island to the Columbia River; they did not exist in isolation nor a vacuum. While crafts such as artwork, tools, clothing, and weaponry can be identifiable as "Coast Salish", this does not mean that they wouldn't trade for or otherwise obtain items that are Wakashan in origin. For Warriors, this meant that while one could wield a Salishan whale bone war-club, they could also have a dagger originating from Nuučaan̓uł craftsmen. Or a Salishan Slat Corselet and a Chinookan Elkhide Cuirass.
The following will use the term "Combatants" when referencing the Amerindian forces in the comic, while "Warriors" refers to historical Coast Salishan Warriors that were considered professionals.

Warriors I : Inaccuracies Regarding Dress, Physical Appearance

Warriors II : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - ArmoDefensive Weapons

Warriors III : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - Weapons


Warriors - Conclusion:

After reviewing the recorded weapons, armor, clothing, and appearances; the Combatants depicted are at best heavily distorted from their apparent inspirations. They appear as a group of ill-equipped, ill-prepared, low-class men who were unlikely to survive the conflict.

Preface - Where did "Sasquatch" come from?

"Sasquatch" is derived from the Halkomelem term "Sásq'ets". This alone has narrowed the tribal groups to those that spoke not only a Central Coast Salishan Language, but specifically Halkomelem (approximately 38 tribes over three dialects). This means that Chewbacca and Han Solo landed somewhere near the modern day British Columbian/Washington State border and encountered Halkomelem-Speaking Tribesmen. Now it is a possibility that these tribesmen were venturing into the territory of a tribe that primarily spoke a different Central Coast Salish language such as Lhéchalosem (the Nooksack language), or even a non-Coast Salish group.
Within anthropological sources such as "Puyallup-Nisqually", there are figures that by description match up quite well with the modern conception of "Bigfoot/Sasquatch" in the form of the Tsiatko (Stick Indian). Tall, hairy, malodorous men who lived in nests in the forest. While they used bows, couldn’t swim, occasionally wore animal hides, and communicated via a whistling language; they could be reasonably be taken as the inspiration for modern day Bigfoot along with related figures in Coast Salishan/Northwest Coast Folklore (Dᶻugʷə', Dzunuḵ̓wa, multiple Cannibal figures with similar descriptions).
However, the Coast Salish did not view them and related figures overall as gentle guardians of the forest, hidden people, benevolent, nor mythological. While some were seen as gentle giants, most were seen as almost entirely hostile to Humans. This hostility was manifested through murder, kidnapping and enslavement of women and children, harassment, theft, destruction of property, and the occasional prank. There are multiple accounts in "Puyallup-Nisqually" describing not only witnessing such giants, but also dealing with either killing one, attacks by multiple subjects, and even the kidnapping and adoption of Tsiatko youth.
One aspect that should be kept in mind is what would Coast Salishan tribespeople consider "hairy"? Considering that Sasquatch is often depicted as an undiscovered Non-Human Great Ape (of which most members are extremely hairy compared to modern humans), it is often assumed that Sasquatch must resemble either an extraordinarily hairy human, or a non-human hominid. However, within the contexts of traditional Coast Salish grooming and religious habits, Europeans are very hairy.
This is a result from the ritual scrubbing off of body hair in their pubescence in order to prepare them for quests for power. As the vast majority of Coast Salishan tribespeople rubbed and plucked their body hair off with rocks in their early teens, a man with what by contemporary standards is a moderately hairy torso would be seen as jaw-droppingly hairy by pre-contact tribespeople since he did not undergo similar rituals. Thus, while Bigfoot/Sasquatch is often portrayed as being either a non-human hominid or just as hairy, a Coast Salish tribesman might have envisioned somebody simply with a larger than average amount of body hair.
With these contexts, we shall examine the inconsistencies of Chewbacca as the legendary Sasquatch.
As previously stated and worthy of being reiterated: the Coast Salish did not exist in a vacuum. While the most obvious signs of interaction with non-Salishan groups would be physical goods such as art, tools, clothing, and religious paraphernalia; religious and/or folkloric figures/concepts would also be present.
While the term Sásq'ets is of Halkomelem origin, there are similar figures in Nuučaan̓uł and Kwakwaka'wakw folklore. Due to this, it is actually rather ambiguous when attempting to point out which incarnation Chewbacca is when there are multiple figures that have been retroactively referred to as "Sasquatch" and the figure(s) referred to as Sásq'ets have little distinguishing features when compared to other folkloric beings in the region.
Keeping in mind the earlier ambiguity of "hairy" in terms of Coast Salish standards, Chewbacca might
While Chewbacca can roughly be seen as what a Coast Salish tribesman might describe as a tall, violent, and "Hairy" man; his signature roar most notably would be a stark contrast to what "Sásq'ets"/"Tsiatko"/etc is reported to emit (albeit, he does howl instead immediately after the death of Han Solo). The figures in Coast Salish Folklore do not roar, scream, howl, nor growl for intimidation. They merely whistle.
While whistling might be seen as unnerving to those trekking throughout the woods alone, it was used to communicate with other members of their race.
To reflect how they whistled, traditional figures often referred to retroactively as "Sasquatch" are depicted with puckered lips in imitation of how they whistled. With that being so, Chewbacca does not resemble any artwork that is commonly referred to as portraying a Sasquatch/Bigfoot for he is only ever shown howling, growling, or roaring.

Sasquatch - Conclusion

With the vague details that can be discerned from anthropological accounts in regards to the appearance of Giants that could be Sásq'ets, Chewbacca's portrayal as the apparent originator of Sasquatch is too vague to truly disprove or confirm (excluding that there are multiple figures with similar features ranging across the Northwest which cannot all be Chewbacca).
His temperament fits certain descriptions, while other accounts of similar figures describe a drastically different character all together (Chewbacca has never been shown to enslave women and children).
This section will be further elaborated in an edit.
Unfortunately, the sources for Coast Salishan warfare prior to the Indian Wars in the Puget Sound are far and few in-between. Tactics, weapons, armor styles, and martial art styles are largely lost to the tide of time. However, the sources that do describe such are invaluable in the details they give (along with artifacts discovered/obtained).
A keen observer will note that the tribes of Puget Sound are mostly Southern Coast Salish, with the Nooksack and Lummi being the two Central Coast Salishan tribes in the region. While there are linguistic differences resulting in the languages (for example: speakers of Xʷləšucid and Halq̓eméylem wouldn't immediately understand what the other is saying), their culture is largely similar. Religious Figures like the Changer are present with the same role, Power concepts are the same, social classes are the same.
While the Southern Coast Salish might use Sahaptin terms in everyday speech or even dress on occasion, they are still Coast Salish in art, crafts, housing, social & religious concepts.
Examples of Cedar Bark Clothing
As touched upon in "Warriors III : Inaccuracies Regarding Equipment - ArmoDefensive Weapons", the processed inner back of the western red cedar is an essential resource for everyday clothing among Amerindians along the Northwest Coast.
To not have a hat made out of cedar bark was to be lower than even the slaves. Not having one meant exposure to rain, snow, and the sun, all of which will be encountered in a year along the coast. If trekking through the mountains, a cedar hat was brought along. If on the canoe, paddling to visit a relative across the water, a cedar hat was worn.
Whom were they seeking to attack in the deep forest while the vast majority of villages were located on the coast? Their aggression is unusual along with almost everything about them.
Unless Wookies and Galactic Smugglers are a long hated foe of their tribe, it is highly unusual that they would instantly attack the two without any provocation. An early European Explorer (Manuel Quimper Benítez del Pino, 1790 CE) noted that while meeting with what could reasonably surmised to be Coast Salish tribesmen due to the noted differences in language and their location, they were dressed and prepared for battle yet were genial towards the explorers.
If Han and Chewie made no threatening gestures or attacks towards them, then why try to kill them?
This expands off the observations that Chewbacca does not resemble the whistling expressions from artwork. If Chewbacca is the progenitor for the Sásq'ets legend (this is not explicitly stated but is implied) among the tribes of the Northwest Coast, then why does none of the artwork of Sásq'ets and related figures not resemble Chewbacca if he has a rather distinct appearance?
1 - Puyallup-Nisqually, 1940 by Marian Smith; despite name, covers the majority of Coast Salish Groups within the Puget Sound.
2 - Peoples of Cascadia, 2012 by Heidi Bohan
3 - Myron Eells and Puget Sound Indians; 1973 by Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown
4 - Tribes of the Extreme Northwest; 1877, by George Gibbs and William Healey Dall
5 - North American Bows, Arrows, and Quivers: An Illustrated History; 1893, by Otis Tufton Mason
6 - "They Recognize No Superior Chief"; 2009, by William O. Angelbeck
7 - Native North American Shields, Armor, and Fortifications; 2004, by David E. Jones
8 - Cedar; 1984, by Hilary Stewart
9 - The Problem of Justice : Tradition and Law in the Coast Salish World; 2001, by Bruce G. Miller
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